Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/90992
標題: 以應力波波速推估現地混凝土強度之案例研究
Case Study of Using Stress Wave Velocity to Evaluate In-Place Strength of Concrete
作者: 薛敬良
Ching-Liang Hsueh
關鍵字: Thesis;National Chung Hsing University;論文;中興大學
引用: [1] ASTM C 42, 'Standard Method of Obtaining and Testing Drilled Cores and Sawed Beams of Concrete,' Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol. 04.02. [2] ASTM C 805, 'Standard Test Method for Rebound Number of Hardened Concrete,' Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol. 04.02. [3] ASTM C 803, 'Standard Test Method for Penetration Resistance of Hardened Concrete,' Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol. 04.02. [4] ASTM C 1150, 'Standard Test Method for the Break-Off Number of Concrete,' Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol. 04.02. [5] ASTM C 900, 'Standard Test Method for Pullout Strength of Hardened Concrete,' Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol. 04.02. [6] BSI, 1992, 'Recommendations for the Assessment of Concrete Strength by Near-to-Surface Tests,'BS 1881, Part 207,British Standards Institution. [7] ASTM C 597, 'Standard Test Method for Pulse Velocity Through Concrete,' Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol. 04.02. [8] ASTM C 1074, 'Standard Practice for Estimating Concrete Strength by the Maturity Method,' Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol. 04.02. [9] ASTM C873, 'Test Method for Compressive Strength of Concrete Cylinders Cast in Place in Cylindrical Molds,' Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol. 04.02. [10] ACI Committee 228 Report,(2003),'In-Place Methods to Estimate Concrete Strength,' ACI 228.1R-95,41 pages. [11] ASTM C 1383 (1998). 'Standard Test Method for Measuring the P-Wave Speed and the Thickness of Concrete Plates Using the Inpact-Echo Method' Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol. 04.02.,1998. [12] 賴朝鵬,' 混凝土材料組成對其流動性質與波傳行為之影響',中興大 學,1999. [13] 郭世芳,'探討超音波速度與混凝土抗壓強度之關係與其應用', 國立中興大學土木工程學系博士論文,2006 年7月。 [14] 詹智捷,'混凝土含水狀態之量測與超音波波速關係之建立' ,中興大學,2010. [15] 汪信宏,' 不同含水狀態對混凝土表面及內部波速量測之影響' ,中興大學,2012 [16] 林宜清、童建樺、林永強、黃瑋倫,' 開發應力波檢測技術以推估混凝土之早齡期強度' ,財團法人中興工程顧問社,2014 [17] Sandor Popovics, L. Joseph Rose, and John S. Popovics, 'The Behavior of Ultrasonic Pulses in Concrete,' Cement and Concrete Research, Vol. 20, No.2, 1990, pp.259-270. [18] Sturrup, V.R., Vecchio, F.J., and Caratin, H. (1984).'Pulse Velocity as a Measure of Concrete Compressive Strength', In Situ/Nondestructive Testing of Concrete, ACI SP-82, 1984; pp. 201-227 [19] Bungey, J.H. (1982). 'Testing of Concrete in Structures,' Surrey University Press, Glasgow, 1982, pp. 207. 26. Popovics, S. (1987).'A Hypothesis Concrete the Effects of Macro-Porosity on Mechanical Properties of Concrete', Fracture of Concrete and Rock. [20] Malhotra, V.M. (1976).'Testing Hardened Concrete : Nondestructive Methods,' ACI Monograph, No. 9, American Concrete Institute/Iowa State University Press, Detroit, 1976, pp. 204. [21] Lin, Y., Kuo, S.F., Hsiao, C., and Lai, C.P., 'Investigation of Pulse Velocity-Strength Relationship of Hardened Concrete,' ACI Materials Journal, Vol. 104, No. 4, 2007, pp. 344-350. [22] Pessiki Stephen and Johnson, Matthew R. (1996).'Nondestructive Evaluation of Early-age Concrete Strength In Plate Structures by the Impact-Echo Method,' ACI Materials Journal, Vol. 93, No.3, 1996, pp.260-271. [23] Anderson David, A. and Seals Roger, K. (1981).'Pulse Velocity as a Predictor of 28- and 90-Day Strength', ACI Materials Journal, Vol.78, No.2,March-April 1981, pp.116-122. [24] Kaplan, M.F. (1958).'Compressive Strength and Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity Relationships for Concrete in Columns', Journal of ACI, Vol.54, No.8,February 1958, pp. 675-688. [25] Kaplan, M.F. (1952).'Effects of Incomplete Consolidation on Compressive and Flexural Strength, Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity, and Dynamic Modulus of Elasticity of Concrete', Journal of ACI, Vol.56, No.9, March, 1952, pp.853-867. [26] Popovics, S. (1987).'A Hypothesis Concrete the Effects of Macro-Porosity on Mechanical Properties of Concrete', Fracture of Concrete and Rock,SEM-RILEM International Conference, June 1987,Houston Texas,pp.170-174. [27] Naik, T.R., and Malhotra, V.M. (1991).'The Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity Method', Chapter 7 in CRC Handbook on Nondestructive Testing of Concrete, V.M. Malhotra and N.J. carino, Eds., CRC Press, Boca raton, FL,1991, pp.169-188.
摘要: 
本論文主要目的是以前人研究建立之應力波波速與混凝土強度成長率關係性實際應用於在建工地現場做為推估現地混凝土強度之案例研究試驗,探討現場實際各齡期混凝土波速與強度成長率之關係,並以混凝土表面自然乾燥及預濕飽和兩種狀態對波速影響之關係辦理修正。在混凝土波速與強度成長關係採用面乾內飽和之圓柱試體,波速量測採用超音波法,現地試驗時波速量測採用敲擊回音法再以前人研究與超音波法彼此間之轉換關係做轉換,來針對不同齡期混凝土試體進行波速量測並以混凝土含水狀態對波速做修正,再來預估混凝土強度,最後與鑽心試體抗壓強度做比較。本研究現地混凝土試體配比之實際水膠比(W/B)為0.56,其中飛灰佔25%,爐石粉佔25%。
研究結果,顯示以圓柱試體所建立的波速與強度成長率迴歸關係曲線與前人研究以水膠比0.5與0.6公式建立之波速-強度預估成長率關係曲線預測公式相似度極高,驗證與混凝土配比中之粗粒料含量、膠結料含量或是不同膠結摻料(爐石或飛灰)及水膠比對於波速-強度成長率關係曲線造成的影響的確有限。
在現場混凝土強度評估方面,因本研究案例之板試體採用現成鋼模以垂直方式灌置混凝土,故有明顯的粒料沈降現象,使得下部之粒料含量較上部為多,而早齡期之波速因漿體尚在水化階段,易受粒料分佈影響波速強度很大,以致造成位於下部之波速均較位於上部之波速來得高的狀況。本研究如以圓柱試體所建立的波速與強度成長率關係曲線來推估現場板試體強度,因與現場板試體實際狀況之配比(尤其是粒料含量)已明顯差異,故強度預測時,所需之終端波速已不相同。故本研究另外以超音波對28天之鑽心試體檢測求得波速,搭配抗壓試驗求得強度,再依據波速與強度關係成長率曲線分別推求得到板試體上、下兩部分之終端波速,再據以推估現場板試體之強度。研究顯示以修正的終端波速推估各齡期現地板塊試體強度結果,除7天早齡期仍偏低外,餘14天及28天的預估強度均已在可接受的範圍內。

The objective of the thesis is to practically apply the previously established growth rate relationship between stress wave velocity and concrete strength for estimate of in-place strength of concrete in a construction site. The research work includes verifying the established relationship between ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV) and strength growth rate and investigating the effect of surface natural dry and pre-wetting status on stress wave velocity. Concrete cylinders with saturated surface dry (SSD) were used to verify the UPV-strength relationship. In field study, the impact-echo (IE) method was adopted to measure the wave velocity at various ages of concrete and a suggested factor was used to convert the IE velocity into UPV. Subsequently, the converted velocity was modified by the moisture content of concrete to a status of SSD. Then, the strength of concrete was estimated by the velocity in SSD status with the established UPV-strength relationship and the estimated strength was compared with the strength of the cores taken from the field specimen. The water-cementitious ratio (W/B) of field concrete was 0.56 and replacement ratios of cement with fly ash and slag both were 25%.
The results obtained from the study show that the relationship between UPV growth rate and strength growth rate is almost the same as the previously established one. This once again reveals that the UPV-strength growth rate relationship is not affected significantly by the change in mixture proportion of concrete.
In the field study, separation of aggregates was found in a erected steel mold due to the gravity effect. This results in a higher pulse velocity in the lower part of the specimen containing more aggregates. In such a case, the terminal strength would not be affected because the W/B did not change. However, the terminal velocity needed in strength estimate with the UPV- strength growth rate relationship must be different due to change in aggregate content. Thus, the UPV and strength of core specimen at an age of 28 days was used to deduce the terminal velocity. Finally, the strength of the field specimen was estimated with the deduced terminal velocity. The estimated results are in a satisfactory range with an error within 15% for concrete at ages of 14 and 28 days.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/90992
其他識別: U0005-1308201522460100
Rights: 同意授權瀏覽/列印電子全文服務,2018-08-17起公開。
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