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Case Study of Using Stress Wave Velocity to Evaluate In-Place Strength of Concrete
|關鍵字:||Thesis;National Chung Hsing University;論文;中興大學||引用:|| ASTM C 42, 'Standard Method of Obtaining and Testing Drilled Cores and Sawed Beams of Concrete,' Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol. 04.02.  ASTM C 805, 'Standard Test Method for Rebound Number of Hardened Concrete,' Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol. 04.02.  ASTM C 803, 'Standard Test Method for Penetration Resistance of Hardened Concrete,' Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol. 04.02.  ASTM C 1150, 'Standard Test Method for the Break-Off Number of Concrete,' Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol. 04.02.  ASTM C 900, 'Standard Test Method for Pullout Strength of Hardened Concrete,' Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol. 04.02.  BSI, 1992, 'Recommendations for the Assessment of Concrete Strength by Near-to-Surface Tests,'BS 1881, Part 207,British Standards Institution.  ASTM C 597, 'Standard Test Method for Pulse Velocity Through Concrete,' Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol. 04.02.  ASTM C 1074, 'Standard Practice for Estimating Concrete Strength by the Maturity Method,' Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol. 04.02.  ASTM C873, 'Test Method for Compressive Strength of Concrete Cylinders Cast in Place in Cylindrical Molds,' Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol. 04.02.  ACI Committee 228 Report,(2003),'In-Place Methods to Estimate Concrete Strength,' ACI 228.1R-95,41 pages.  ASTM C 1383 (1998). 'Standard Test Method for Measuring the P-Wave Speed and the Thickness of Concrete Plates Using the Inpact-Echo Method' Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol. 04.02.,1998.  賴朝鵬,' 混凝土材料組成對其流動性質與波傳行為之影響',中興大 學,1999.  郭世芳,'探討超音波速度與混凝土抗壓強度之關係與其應用', 國立中興大學土木工程學系博士論文，2006 年7月。  詹智捷,'混凝土含水狀態之量測與超音波波速關係之建立' ,中興大學,2010.  汪信宏,' 不同含水狀態對混凝土表面及內部波速量測之影響' ,中興大學,2012  林宜清、童建樺、林永強、黃瑋倫,' 開發應力波檢測技術以推估混凝土之早齡期強度' ,財團法人中興工程顧問社,2014  Sandor Popovics, L. Joseph Rose, and John S. Popovics, 'The Behavior of Ultrasonic Pulses in Concrete,' Cement and Concrete Research, Vol. 20, No.2, 1990, pp.259-270.  Sturrup, V.R., Vecchio, F.J., and Caratin, H. (1984).'Pulse Velocity as a Measure of Concrete Compressive Strength', In Situ/Nondestructive Testing of Concrete, ACI SP-82, 1984; pp. 201-227  Bungey, J.H. (1982). 'Testing of Concrete in Structures,' Surrey University Press, Glasgow, 1982, pp. 207. 26. Popovics, S. (1987).'A Hypothesis Concrete the Effects of Macro-Porosity on Mechanical Properties of Concrete', Fracture of Concrete and Rock.  Malhotra, V.M. (1976).'Testing Hardened Concrete : Nondestructive Methods,' ACI Monograph, No. 9, American Concrete Institute/Iowa State University Press, Detroit, 1976, pp. 204.  Lin, Y., Kuo, S.F., Hsiao, C., and Lai, C.P., 'Investigation of Pulse Velocity-Strength Relationship of Hardened Concrete,' ACI Materials Journal, Vol. 104, No. 4, 2007, pp. 344-350.  Pessiki Stephen and Johnson, Matthew R. (1996).'Nondestructive Evaluation of Early-age Concrete Strength In Plate Structures by the Impact-Echo Method,' ACI Materials Journal, Vol. 93, No.3, 1996, pp.260-271.  Anderson David, A. and Seals Roger, K. (1981).'Pulse Velocity as a Predictor of 28- and 90-Day Strength', ACI Materials Journal, Vol.78, No.2,March-April 1981, pp.116-122.  Kaplan, M.F. (1958).'Compressive Strength and Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity Relationships for Concrete in Columns', Journal of ACI, Vol.54, No.8,February 1958, pp. 675-688.  Kaplan, M.F. (1952).'Effects of Incomplete Consolidation on Compressive and Flexural Strength, Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity, and Dynamic Modulus of Elasticity of Concrete', Journal of ACI, Vol.56, No.9, March, 1952, pp.853-867.  Popovics, S. (1987).'A Hypothesis Concrete the Effects of Macro-Porosity on Mechanical Properties of Concrete', Fracture of Concrete and Rock,SEM-RILEM International Conference, June 1987,Houston Texas,pp.170-174.  Naik, T.R., and Malhotra, V.M. (1991).'The Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity Method', Chapter 7 in CRC Handbook on Nondestructive Testing of Concrete, V.M. Malhotra and N.J. carino, Eds., CRC Press, Boca raton, FL,1991, pp.169-188.||摘要:||
The objective of the thesis is to practically apply the previously established growth rate relationship between stress wave velocity and concrete strength for estimate of in-place strength of concrete in a construction site. The research work includes verifying the established relationship between ultrasonic pulse velocity (UPV) and strength growth rate and investigating the effect of surface natural dry and pre-wetting status on stress wave velocity. Concrete cylinders with saturated surface dry (SSD) were used to verify the UPV-strength relationship. In field study, the impact-echo (IE) method was adopted to measure the wave velocity at various ages of concrete and a suggested factor was used to convert the IE velocity into UPV. Subsequently, the converted velocity was modified by the moisture content of concrete to a status of SSD. Then, the strength of concrete was estimated by the velocity in SSD status with the established UPV-strength relationship and the estimated strength was compared with the strength of the cores taken from the field specimen. The water-cementitious ratio (W/B) of field concrete was 0.56 and replacement ratios of cement with fly ash and slag both were 25%.
The results obtained from the study show that the relationship between UPV growth rate and strength growth rate is almost the same as the previously established one. This once again reveals that the UPV-strength growth rate relationship is not affected significantly by the change in mixture proportion of concrete.
In the field study, separation of aggregates was found in a erected steel mold due to the gravity effect. This results in a higher pulse velocity in the lower part of the specimen containing more aggregates. In such a case, the terminal strength would not be affected because the W/B did not change. However, the terminal velocity needed in strength estimate with the UPV- strength growth rate relationship must be different due to change in aggregate content. Thus, the UPV and strength of core specimen at an age of 28 days was used to deduce the terminal velocity. Finally, the strength of the field specimen was estimated with the deduced terminal velocity. The estimated results are in a satisfactory range with an error within 15% for concrete at ages of 14 and 28 days.
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