Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/91033
標題: 單一水田滯洪機能之強化與評析
Study on the enhancement of detention function for single paddy field
作者: 黃柏維
Po-Wei Huang
關鍵字: Paddy Field Dam;Orifice;Drainage outlet;Detention function;水田水庫;孔口;排水缺口;滯洪機能
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摘要: 
近年來在氣候極端化的趨勢下,降雨量逐漸有集中化及強度變大之現象,以致易淹水地區的情勢益發嚴重,在無法及時增加排水路排洪量或增設抽水站的情況下,本研究嘗試探討是否能夠藉由水田調洪功能的提升來加以因應。若能有效地延長雨水停留在水田中的時間,降低雨水排入排水路的強度,分散排水路集中排水的現象,降低排水尖峰流量,將可明顯提升水田區的減洪防災效果,降低排水下游地區的淹水風險。
本研究以單一水田(3000 m2)作為分析對象,將水田視為「水田水庫」之概念,藉由改良後之設計排水缺口,評估水田滯洪措施在改良設計後可達之減洪防災效果。降雨量則利用頭汴雨量站及頭汴坑雨量站之設計雨型,基於不同水文狀況下進行降雨強度的頻率年分析,以利後續規劃及改良水田排水機制設計上的參考。
本研究首先將水田排水缺口訂定為矩形堰式缺口,而矩形堰式缺口所得之研究成果應可做為水田本身所具有之滯洪與蓄洪能力之參考依據;再將排水缺口由矩形堰式改良為孔口式之缺口,透過孔口式缺口已初步達到提高滯洪機能,但考慮近年來氣候極端化的趨勢下及農民所顧慮之因素等,為了提高可行性及適用性故增加了溢洪機制。
研究成果顯示在頭汴雨量站(平地)之設計雨型模擬下,將排水缺口以矩形堰式計算時,洪峰延滯時間平均約為47.5(min),若為改良式缺口約為192.5(min),約莫矩形堰式洪峰延滯時間之四倍,其洪峰流量皆能再削減約58%以上。而在頭汴坑雨量站(山區)之設計雨型模擬下,排水缺口以矩形堰式計算時,洪峰延滯時間平均約為50(min),若為改良式缺口則是127.5(min)且其洪峰流量之平均削減量亦有約40.56%。 
本研究單一片水田之蓄洪量為480(m3),在等價蓄水深度部分,頭汴雨量站之平均等價蓄水深度約為5.88(cm);而頭汴坑雨量站約為9.68(cm)。本研究改良式缺口不論在洪峰延遲時間、洪峰削減量或是蓄洪量及等價蓄水深度上,皆達到強化水田原有機能且有良好的滯蓄洪效益及大幅降低洪峰流出量,兼有逕流分擔與出流管制之效用。
本研究所提擬之改良水田排水缺口方式亦可藉由修改孔口間距及溢洪機制下,配合設計雨型以評估因地制宜之修改方案。因既設之排水系統、抽水站或是蓄洪池等不容易即時且隨意地加大排洪規模,且比起排水改善工程或是興建蓄洪池及增設抽水站,本研究所研議之改良方式可能是最簡易、低成本且快速減輕淹水災害的做法。

In recent years, rainfall intensity is growing more and more concentrated, so the situation of easily flooded areas is getting worse in the trend of climate extremes. Unable to respond to the increase of the flood drainage channel drainage discharge or the case of additional pumping stations in time, so this study attempts to investigate the possibility by paddy fields in response the enhancement of detention function. If the drainage outlet of paddy fields can be modified to strengthen the original flood detention function, the rainfall staying time in paddy fields will prolong effectively and the intensity of rainfall into the drainage channel will be reduced. Dispersion of concentrated drainage and reduce of peak drainage discharge will enhance the effect of reducing flood of paddy fields significantly, thereby reduce the risk of flooding in the downstream areas.
In this study, selected a single paddy(area 3000 m2) as the target area The concept of paddy regarded as 'Paddy Field Dam'. Detention function of the analysis could reach effect of flood disaster prevention and reduction for paddy fields with the improved drainage outlet. We used the design hyetograph of rainfull stations (TOU-BIAN and TOU-BIAN-KENG) for the amount of rainfall. In order to facilitate the subsequent planning and to refer the design of improving drainage function for the paddy fields, analyzing the frequency of rainfall intensity based on different hydrological conditions.
In this study, the ridge opening of a paddy field was configured into a rectangular weir notch. The research results derived from implementing this type of weir notch may serve as a reference for determining the flood detention and storage capacity of paddy fields. The rectangular weir notch was further modified into an orifice outlet, which preliminarily improved the function and capacity of the flood detention. However, considering the recent tendency of extreme climates and farmers' concerns, we incorporated an overflow mechanism to improve the feasibility and broaden the applicability of the designed outlet.
The study aimed to simulate the design hyetograph in the rainfull stations (TOU-BIAN, flatland), drainage outlet calculate rectangular weir notch, the time to reach peak depth of delay lasts average 47.5(min), if it's modified outlet about 192.5(min), four times of the rectangular weir notch's time, peak flow are cut more than 58%. The design hyetograph in the rainfull stations (TOU-BIAN-KENG, mountain land), drainage outlet calculate rectangular weir notch, the time to reach peak depth of delay lasts average 50(min), if it's modified outlet about 127.5(min), and the average reduction in the amount of their peak flow of approximately 40.56%.
The research rainfall storage of single paddy field was 480(m3), it's part of equivalent water depth, with the average equivalent water depth is about 5.88(cm) in the rainfull stations(TOU-BIAN, flatland), and the rainfull stations(TOU-BIAN-KENG, mountain land) is about 9.68(cm). It also shown that both in the time to reach peak depth, or the peak flow of reduction, or the rainfall storage and equivalent water depth, it's up to streng paddy function and have great efficiency and significantly reduce lag flood peak outflow, both runoff sharing and the effectiveness of runoff control.
The proposed method for improving paddy field ridge-openings can be adopted to modify existing projects according to local terrain and rainfall patterns by adjusting the orifice intervals and overflow mechanisms. The scale of extant drainage systems, pumping stations, and detention basins for flood discharge cannot be expanded easily in a timely manner. Nevertheless, compared with the drainage improvement methods involving engineering construction, building flood detention basins, or installing new pumping stations, the proposed improvement method is likely to be the simplest approach for rapid and low-cost flood mitigation.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/91033
其他識別: U0005-2606201512422500
Rights: 同意授權瀏覽/列印電子全文服務,2018-07-22起公開。
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