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標題: 以適應性競爭窗口改善電力線通訊壅塞問題
Improvement of Power Line Network Congestion Using Adaptive Contention Window
作者: 張維廷
Wai-Ting Chang
關鍵字: Power line communication;collision;contention window;Carrier Sense Multiple Access/Collision Avoidance (CSMA/CA);電力線通訊;碰撞;競爭窗口;載波感測多重存取/碰撞避免
引用: [1] 蒲冠志,林俊良,'電力線通訊(PLC)系統工程系列專刊(三)' ,經濟部通訊產業發展推動小組,2007 [2] H. Kwon, H. Seo, S. Kim. and B. Lee G, 'Generalized CSMA/CA for OFDMA systems: protocol design, throughput analysis, and implementation issues.'Wireless Communications, IEEE Transactions on, vol. 8, no. 8, pp. 4176-4187,2009 [3] S. G. Yoon and S. Bahk, 'Rate adaptation scheme in power line communication,'In Power Line Communications and Its Applications, 2008. ISPLC 2008. IEEE International Symposium on, pp. 111-116, 2008 [4] K. H. Liu, D. R. Hsieh, J. Y. Hsu and S. Y. Chang, 'Throughput improvement for power line communication by adaptive MAC protocol,' In Power Engineering and Optimization Conference (PEDCO) Melaka, Malaysia, 2012 Ieee International, pp. 135-140, 2012 [5] S. G. Yoon, K. Daeho and B. Saewoong, 'OFDMA CSMA/CA protocol for power line communication,' Power Line Communications and Its Applications (ISPLC), 2010 IEEE International Symposium on, pp. 297-301, 2010. [6] D. B. Luca, S. D. Alessandro, and A. M. Tonello, 'MAC enhancements for G3-PLC home networks.' Power Line Communications and Its Applications(ISPLC), 2013 17th IEEE International Symposium on, pp. 155-160, 2013. [7] M. E. M. Campista, L. H. M. K. Costa, and O. C. M. B. Duarte, 'Improving the data transmission throughput over the home electrical wiring.' Local Computer Networks, 2005. 30th Anniversary. The IEEE Conference on, pp. 318-327 , 2005. [8] S. G. Yoon, Y. Jeongkyun and B. Saewoong, 'Adaptive contention window mechanism for enhancing throughput in HomePlug AV networks,' Consumer Communications and Networking Conference, 2008. CCNC 2008. 5th IEEE, pp.190-194, 2008. [9] A. Mori, Y. Watanabe, M. Tokuda and K. Kawamoto, 'Transmission characteristics of an OFDM signal for power line communication system with high bit rate,' In Electromagnetic Compatibility, 2007. EMC 2007. IEEE International Symposium on, pp.1-6, 2007 [10] Alliance, HomePlug Powerline. 'HomePlug AV white paper,'http://www. homeplug. org/products/whitepapers/ ', 2007 [11] M. K. Lee, R. E. Newman, H. A. Latchman, S. Katar and L. Yonge, 'HomePlug 1.0 powerline communication LANs—protocol description and performance results,' International Journal of Communication Systems, vol. 16, no. 5, pp.447-473, 2003 [12] E. Kriminger and H. Latchman, 'Markov chain model of homeplug CSMA MAC for determining optimal fixed contention window size,' Power Line Communications and Its Applications (ISPLC), 2011 IEEE International Symposium on, pp.399-404, 2011. [13] NS 3, '' [14] X.Carcelle, 'Power line communications in practice,' Artech House, 2009 [15] 王暉, '寬頻電力線存取技術',中國傳媒大學信息工程學院,2009 [16] S. G. Yoon and B. Saewoong, 'Adaptive rate control and contention window-size adjustment for power-line communication,' Power Delivery, IEEE Transactions on, vol. 26, no. 2, pp.809-816, 2011 [17] M. Y. Chung, M. H. Jung, T. J. Lee and Y. Lee, 'Performance analysis of HomePlug 1.0 MAC with CSMA/CA,' Selected Areas in Communications, IEEE Journal on, vol. 24, no. 7, pp.1411-1420, 2006 [18] M. H. Jung, M. Y. Chung, and T. J. Lee, 'MAC throughput analysis of HomePlug 1. 0,' IEEE Communications Letters , vol. 9, no. 2, pp.184-186, 2005 [19] P. J. Piñero-Escuer, J. Malgosa-Sanahuja, P. Manzanares-Lopez and J. P. Muñoz-Gea, 'Homeplug-AV CSMA/CA Evaluation in a Real In-Building ,'Scenario. IEEE communications letters, vol. 15, no. 6, pp.683-685, 2011 [20] F. Aalamifar, A. Schloegl, D. Harris and L. Lampe, 'PLC software,' [21] NS-2, '' [22] NS3- 網 路 模 擬 系 統 軟 體 介 紹 , '' [23] L. Bononi, M. Conti and L. Donatiello, 'Design and performance evaluation of a distributed contention control (DCC) mechanism for IEEE 802.11 wireless local area networks,' Proceedings of the 1st ACM international workshop on Wireless mobile multimedia, pp.114-123, 1999 [24] G. Bianchi, 'Performance analysis of the IEEE 802.11 distributed coordination function,' Selected Areas in Communications, IEEE Journal on, vol. 18, no. 3, pp.535-547, 2000 [25] W. R. Hawe, R. Jain and D. M. Chiu, 'A quantitative measure of fairness and discrimination for resource allocation in shared computer systems,' Hudson, MA: Eastern Research Laboratory, Digital Equipment Corporation, 1984.
Power line communication (PLC) is one of the most popular topics in recent years.
Because it uses existing power line for transmission, it has lower cost while compared with other communications. Since power lines has exist almost everywhere, even in the remote areas. This makes PLC to be one of the ways to solve the 'last mile' problem.
Since there are more and more people use PLC products in recent years, the PLC congestion problem has also becoming the important research issue. PLC adopts Carrier
Sense Multiple Access/ Collision Avoidance (CSMA/CA) to deal with the packet collision problem. There exists 'packet collision' in the communications. While there are several data using the same channel for transmission at the same time, they will interfere with each other, which cause data transmission failure and require to retransmit data. Retransmitted data will lead to the serious decline of throughput When the node number in the network environment increases, the probability collision will increase which cause to the low efficiency in transmission. Therefore, one can regard the collision problem as a congestion problem. The HomePlug AV is one of the most famous protocols in PLC. It adopts CSMA/CA to prevent the occurrence of collision.
However, although HomePlug AV can keep high throughput in the situation of low node number, it still has the serious throughput decline in the large scale network. That's because the 'contention window' defined in CSMA/CA is not large enough. However,if one increases the contention window setting in the protocol, the network will exhibit lower throughput when the node numbers is few. To tackle the issue, this research proposes an adaptive contention window mechanism to this problem. According to the information of CSMA/CA parameters, obtain the correction factor to adjust the contention window. When the node number is relatively few, it will give a small contention window value. When the node number increases, it automatically increases the contention window value accordingly. Thus, when the node number become large, it
still exhibits low collision probability.

由於近年來使用電力線通訊的產品逐漸增加,電力線通訊的壅塞問題也成為被重視的焦點,電力線通訊對於封包碰撞的問題採用了 CSMA/CA 的協定,在通訊傳輸裡存在所謂的'封包碰撞'的問題,當一個通道同時有數個資料在傳輸時,彼此間會相互干擾,使資料損毀而需重傳封包進而使網路整體流量嚴重下降,而當網路節點增加時,更會使封包碰撞的機率上升導致傳輸效率過低。因此,我們可將封包碰撞問題視為一種壅塞問題,而 HomePlug AV 為目前最廣用的的電力線通訊協定。在 HomePlug AV 採用 CSMA/CA 的方式來預防碰撞的產生,不過,HomePlugAV 雖然能在低節點數量時保有高流量,但是在大型網路,整體網路流量依然會嚴重下降,這是因為定義在 CSMA/CA 裡的'競爭窗口'不夠大的關係,然而,如果增大協定裡的競爭窗口設定值時,又會使網路在低量節點的情況下呈現較低的流量表現。本論文針對此問題提出一適應性競爭窗口機制,根據定義在 CSMA/CA 裡的參數判別目前的壅塞等級,再經由自定義的修正函數給予合適的修正量,此機制使網路在低節點時擁有較低的競爭窗口,使節點不會浪費過多時間在傳輸前的等待,而在多節點的情況下則給予較大的競爭窗口使各節點在同一時間使用通道的機率降低。
其他識別: U0005-0207201516501900
Rights: 同意授權瀏覽/列印電子全文服務,2018-07-16起公開。
Appears in Collections:電機工程學系所

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