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標題: Design and Fabrication of Integrated Magnetic Microsensors
作者: 曾健治
Jian-Zhi Tseng
關鍵字: magnetic sensor;humidity;temperature;MEMS;magneto-transistor;磁感測器;濕度;溫度;微機電;磁電晶體
引用: [1] [2] [3] [4] L. J. Ristic, M. T. Doan, '3-D Magnetic Field Sensor Realized as a Lateral Magnetotransistor in CMOS Technology,' Sensors and Actuators A, Vol. 22, pp. 770-775, 1990. [5] C. Riccobene, K. Gartnert, 'First Three-dimensional Numerical Analysis of Magnetic Vector Probe,' Technical Digest - International Electron Devices Meeting, pp.727-730, 1994. [6] H. Trujillo, A. Nagy, 'Influence of Topology on the Response of Lateral Magnetotransistors,' Sensors and Actuators A, Vol. 45, pp. 179-182, 1994. [7] C. Leepattarapongpan, T. Phetchakul, 'Merged Three-terminal Magnetotransistor Based on the Carrier Recombination-deflection Effect' Proceedings of IEEE Sensors, pp. 399-402, 2008. [8] A. V. Kozlov, R. D. Tikhonov, 'Development of Planar Magnetotransistor Design Three-dimensional Device-technological Modeling,' Annual International Conference and Seminar on Micro/Nanotechnologies and Electron Devices, pp.208-212, 2010. [9] G. Caruntu, C. Panait 'The Optimization of Hall Microsensors Structure,' 6th IEEE International Conference on Intelligent Data Acquisition and Advanced Computing Systems: Technology and Applications, pp. 115-118, 2011. [10] S. N. Nejad, A. A. Fomani, 'Giant Magneto-impedance Thin Film Magnetic sensor,' IEEE Transaction on magnetics, Vol. 49, pp. 3874-3877, 2013. [11] S. Wattanasarn, K. Matsumoto, '3D Lorentz Force Magnetic Sensor using Ultra-thin Piezoresistive Cantilevers,' Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on MEMS, pp. 693-696, 2013. [12] H. V. Estrada, 'A MEMS-SOI 3D-Magnetic Field Sensor,' Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on MEMS, pp.664-667, 2011. [13] J. Laconte, V. Wilmart, 'High-Sensitivity Capacitance Humidity Sensor using 3-Layer Patterned Polyimide Sensing Film,' Proceedings of IEEE Sensors, pp. 372-377, 2003. [14] S. I. Kuroki, T. Kikkawa, 'Measurement and Analysis of Water Adsorption in Porous Silica Films,' Journal of Electrochemical Society, Vol. 153, pp. 759-764, 2006. [15] W. Geng, N. Li, 'Effect of Polymerization Time on the Humidity Sensing Properties of Polypyrrole,' Sensors and Actuator B, Vol. 125, pp. 114-119, 2007. [16] Z. Peng, C. Palego, 'Impact of Humidity on Dielectric Charging in RF MEMS Capacitive Switch,' IEEE Microwave and Wireless Components Letters, Vol. 19, pp. 299-301, 2009. [17] J. Tu, N. Li, 'Humidity-sensitive Property of Fe2+ Doped Polypyrrole,' Synthetic Metals, Vol. 159, pp.2469-2473, 2009. [18] Z. Bendekovic, P. Biljanovic, 'Polysilicon Temperature Sensor,' Proceedings of the Mediterranean Electrotechnical Conference, pp. 362-366, 1998. [19] H. M. Chuang, K. B. Thei, 'Temperature-Dependent Characteristics of Polysilicon and Diffused Resistors,' IEEE Transactions on Electron Devices, Vol. 50, pp. 1413-1415, 2003. [20] C. W. Lin, S. F. Lin, 'A Highly Linear CMOS Temperature Sensor,' ECTI-CON, pp. 74-77, 2011. [21] P. Sottip, T. Phetchakul, 'The Low Power Magnetotransistor Based on the CMOS Technology,' ECTI-CON, pp.764-767, 2010. [22] C. Leepattarapongpan, T. Phetchakul, 'The Low Power 3D-Magnetotransistor Based on CMOS Technology,' Proceedings of IEEE Sensors, pp. 500-503, 2011.
This study designs and implements an integrated micro-sensor included of magnetic field, humidity and temperature using the commercial 0.18 μm complementary metal oxide semiconductor (CMOS) process. The type of magnetic sensor is lateral magneto-transistor. The magnetic micro-sensors composed of a ring emitter, forth bases and eight collectors. The finite element method (FEM) software Sentaurus TCAD is utilized to analyze the electrical properties and carriers motion path of the magneto-transistor. The STI (Shallow trench isolation) in the CMOS process is used to limit the current direction and reduce current leakage. The humidity sensor is a capacitive sensor with interdigital electrodes stacked by multi-metal layers. The use of the silicon dioxide between interdigital electrodes detects humidity of environment. The temperature sensor contains n+ poly-silicon and metal resistors. Its resistance changes upon sensing temperature. This integrated sensor fabricates by the CMOS process avoids the complication steps of post-CMOS process. Its advantage is easy mass-quantity production. When a lateral magnetic field is applied to the micro-sensor, it brings the voltage difference of both bases in the same axis. That can connect resistor in series with electrode, then the sensor generates the signal of voltage difference. By adjustment of resistance between base and collector, the relative sensitivity of the sensor is 93.43 %/T. After using the readout circuit, the absolute sensitivity of the sensor is 379.46 mV/T under the condition of 4 mA current supply. When humidity rises, the capacitance of humidity increases, because of water vapor adsorption on its top. The sensitivity of humidity sensor is 0.006306 pF/% in the humidity range of 30-90 %, when the temperature of environment is 75 ℃. Due to the metal resistor with positive temperature coefficient of resistance (TCR) is larger than the negative TCR of n+ poly-silicon , the resistance of temperature sensor increases as temperature increases, which its sensitivity is 0.23 Ω/℃ in the temperature range of 30-90 ℃.

本研究設計一個整合磁場與溫濕度的微感測器,並利用標準0.18 μm CMOS製程實現製作。磁場感測器為水平式的磁電晶體 (LMT),此磁電晶體包含了一個環型射極、四個基極與八個集極。利用有限元素分析軟體Sentaurus TCAD 對磁電晶體作電性及載子運動的分析。並使用CMOS製程的STI二氧化矽隔離技術以限制電流方向及減少洩漏電流。濕度感測器則是電容式的感測器,其由製程中金屬層堆疊的指叉狀電極所構成,以指叉電極間的二氧化矽做為感測濕度的薄膜。溫度感測器包含了n摻雜的多晶矽及金屬電阻器,其電阻會隨著溫度而改變。本整合感測器由CMOS標準製程實現可避免後製程的繁瑣步驟,使感測器商品化與量產化更容易達成。當存在水平磁場時,在同一軸向的兩基極電極會產生電壓差。藉由調整基極與集極的串聯電阻,相對靈敏度可提升至93.43 %/T,經感測電路轉換後,在4 mA的供應電流下,絕對靈敏度可達 379.46 mV/T。將晶片置入恆溫恆濕機中,當濕度上升時二氧化矽會因表面水汽的吸附電容上升,其在環境溫度75 ℃下,濕度30 %~90 %區間的靈敏度為0.006306 pF/%。由於金屬電阻器為正TCR (溫度電阻係數) 大於n+ poly-silicon 負TCR值,因此溫度感測器的電阻會隨著溫度上升而上升,其在30 ℃到90 ℃區間的靈敏度為0.23 Ω/℃。
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