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標題: A Novel Six Axis Force/Moment Sensor with Double-Layer Structure
作者: 鍾彩駿
Tsai-Chun Chung
關鍵字: six-axis force sensor;elastic body structure;mechanically decoupled;6軸力量/力矩感測器;彈性體結構;結構解耦
引用: [1] L.-P. Chao and K.-T. Chen, 'Shape optimal design and force sensitivity evaluation of six-axis force sensors,' Sensors and Actuators A: Physical, vol. 63, pp. 105-112, 1997. [2] G.-S. Kim, D.-I. Kang, and S.-H. Rhee, 'Design and fabrication of a six-component force/moment sensor,' Sensors and Actuators A: Physical, vol. 77, pp. 209-220, 1999. [3] S. A. Liu and H. L. Tzo, 'A novel six-component force sensor of goodmeasurement isotropy and sensitivities,' Sensors and Actuators A: Physical, vol. 100, pp. 223-230, 2002. [4] J. Kim, D. Kang, H. Shin, and Y. Park, 'Design and analysis of a column type multi-component force/moment sensor,' Measurement, vol. 33, pp. 213-219, 2003. [5] J. Zhenlin, G. Feng, and Z. Xiaohui, 'Design and analysis of a novel isotropic six-component force/torque sensor,' Sensors and Actuators A: Physical, vol. 109, pp. 17-20, 2003. [6] J.-J. Park and G.-S. Kim, 'Development of the 6-axis force/moment sensor for an intelligent robot's gripper,' Sensors and Actuators A: Physical, vol. 118, pp. 127-134, 2005. [7] U. Seibold, B. Kubler, and G. Hirzinger, 'Prototype of instrument for minimally invasive surgery with 6-axis force sensing capability,' in Robotics and Automation, 2005. ICRA 2005. Proceedings of the 2005 IEEE International Conference on, 2005, pp. 496-501. [8] C. Kang, 'Performance improvement of a 6-axis force-torque sensor via novel electronics and cross-shaped double-hole structure,' INTERNATIONAL JOURNAL OF CONTROL AUTOMATION AND SYSTEMS, vol. 3, p. 469, 2005. [9] A. Song, J. Wu, J. Li, Q. Zeng, and W. Huang, 'A Novel Four Degree-of-Freedom Wrist Force/Torque Sensor with Low Coupled Interference,' in Intelligent Robots and Systems, 2006 IEEE/RSJ International Conference on, 2006, pp. 4423-4428. [10] G. Song, H. Yuan, Y. Tang, Q. Song, and Y. Ge, 'A novel three-axis force sensor for advanced training of shot-put athletes,' Sensors and Actuators A: Physical, vol. 128, pp. 60-65, 2006. [11] G.-S. Kim, 'Design of a six-axis wrist force/moment sensor using FEM and its fabrication for an intelligent robot,' Sensors and Actuators A: Physical, vol. 133, pp. 27-34, 2007. [12] T. Liu, Y. Inoue, and K. Shibata, 'Wearable force sensor with parallel structure for measurement of ground-reaction force,' Measurement, vol. 40, pp. 644-653, 2007. [13] G.-S. Kim, H.-J. Shin, and J. Yoon, 'Development of 6-axis force/moment sensor for a humanoid robot's intelligent foot,' Sensors and Actuators A: Physical, vol. 141, pp. 276-281, 2008. [14] Y.-J. Li, B.-Y. Sun, J. Zhang, M. Qian, and Z.-Y. Jia, 'A novel parallel piezoelectric six-axis heavy force/torque sensor,' Measurement, vol. 42, pp. 730-736, 2009. [15] C. Jacq, B. L?thi, T. Maeder, O. Lambercy, and R. Gassert, 'Thick-film multi-DOF force/torque sensor for wrist rehabilitation,' Procedia Chemistry, vol. 1, pp. 1267-1270, 2009. [16] W. Kurniawan, R. Tjandra, and E. Obermeier, 'Bulk-type piezoresistive force sensor for high pressure applications,' Procedia Chemistry, vol. 1, pp. 544-547, 2009. [17] Q. Liang, D. Zhang, Q. Song, Y. Ge, H. Cao, and Y. Ge, 'Design and fabrication of a six-dimensional wrist force/torque sensor based on E-type membranes compared to cross beams,' Measurement, vol. 43, pp. 1702-1719, 2010. [18] G.-S. Kim, H.-M. Kim, H.-I. Kim, M.-G. Pio, H.-S. Shin, and J. Yoon, 'Development of 6-axis force/moment sensor for measuring the fingers' muscular strength of human,' in Industrial Electronics (ISIE), 2010 IEEE International Symposium on, 2010, pp. 428-433. [19] S. Shams, J. Y. Lee, and C. Han, 'Compact and lightweight optical torque sensor for robots with increased range,' Sensors and Actuators A: Physical, vol. 173, pp. 81-89, 2012. [20] P. Baki, G. Sz?kely, and G. K?sa, 'Design and characterization of a novel, robust, tri-axial force sensor,' Sensors and Actuators A: Physical, 2012. [21] 鄭伊佐,'六軸力量感測器之研究',國立中興大學機械工程學系研究所,碩士論文,2013 [22] 王孝裕,台灣機器人產業發展協會,國內發展產業機器人之供應鏈競爭力分析,網址:,上網日期:2014-07-21 [23] ?野哲朗,2012,靜電電容式力傳感器,中華人民共和國專利 [24] Tetsuro Sakano, 2006, Six-axis force sensor,United states patent. [25] Honda Giken Kogyo Kabushiki Kaisha,2004, Six-axis force sensor, United states patent.
This paper describes the design of six-axis force sensor which enable to measure three axis forces Fx,Fy,Fz and three axis moments Mx,My,Mz on robot's wrist. Through the designing of the elastic body structure, it makes the strain gage of sensor to attach easily on the external surface. (External surface: The direction of normal to surface of structure is not blocked by other structures. On the contrary, it would be the internal surface.) It improves the difficulty of attaching strain gage to Maltese cross structure and make the process simpler. It also reduces the production cost greatly by automated production systems and the amount of the strain gages is also decreased. The two ways mentioned above lower down the high cost which was required to produce a six-axis force sensor. After designing and analyzing the elastic body structure, it would be produced and tested. Anticipating the six axis force sensor is able to be low cost and to reach or even excess the capability of it which are sold on the market.
Owing to new elastic body structure, sensor in this design that can measure three axis forces Fx,Fy,Fz and three axis moments Mx,My,Mz and reach mechanically decoupled by using only 12 strain gages, whereas Maltese cross structure uses 16 strain gages in the same bridge circuits. Further, strain gages with new elastic body structure all attach on the external surface of the structure which is easier than Maltese cross structure. It reduces the cost of producing the six-axis force sensor as well. The designed structure owns the capability that can make sensing element deposited directly onto structure by MEMS process. Therefore, it saves the human resources and time cost by automatic production. Moreover, there is no inaccuracy of strain gage attachment which caused by labor.

After the characteristic test of the developed sensor, maximum interference errors of the structure was 6.07%. However, there was the difference of 23% between simulated and practical situation. It meant that experiment must be improved, so that the evaluation of capability and value can be more accurate.

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