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標題: Effects of Prandtl Number and Rib Shape on Heat Transfer Enhancement in Circular Tubes with Internal Ring-Type Protrusions
作者: 黃文傑
Wen-Chieh Huang
關鍵字: heat transfer enhancement;ring-type protrusions;Nusselt number;friction factor;Prandtl number;熱傳增強;突出環節;紐塞數;摩擦因子;普朗特數
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This study investigated the heat transfer enhancement in circular tubes with internal ring-type protrusions. The heat transfer performance of the tubes with the ring-type protrusions was compared to that with a coil spring. In addition, the effect of rib arc (da) on the heat transfer enhancement was determined. Thirteen copper tubes with inner diameter (d) of 13.8 mm and outer diameter of 15.8 mm were used to fabricate the test tubes with a da value of 2 mm. These tubes are different in rib height (e) and rib pitch (p). Three different working fluids, air, water and ethylene glycol-water solution (EG volume ratio = 33.3%), were considered. The heat transfer measurement was conducted in a concentric-tube device. The inner tube is the test tube in which the working fluid passes through, while saturated water vapor passes through the annulus. An isothermal wall model was used to evaluate the average in-tube convection heat transfer coefficient and Nusselt number (Nu). In the pressure drop measurement, the fluid was set at 25 oC and the pressure drop was measured by using a U tube. The measured data were calculated to obtain the Darcy friction factor (f) at various flow rates. Through a correlation analysis, the Nusselt number (Nu) was expressed as a function of e/d, p/d, Reynolds number (Re) and Prandtl number (Pr). The Nu value is proportional to the 0.45 power of the Pr value. The Nu enhancement index (r1) and mechanical energy consumption index (r2) were also obtained by comparing the measued data of the test tubes to those of a smooth tube. Using the data reported in the literature, the dependence of Nu on the da/d and f values was determined. As water is the working fluid, the heat transfer enhancement due to the internal ring-type protrusions is superior to that due to the coil spring; as air is the working fluid, the latter is better than the former.

此研究探討具內部突出環節圓管之熱傳增強效果,所得之結果除了與內部具有螺旋彈簧之熱傳增強管進行比較,亦探討環節溝徑(da)對熱傳增強之影響。首先以內徑13.8 mm (d) 與外徑為15.8 mm之光滑圓銅管,製作13支da = 2 mm但具不同環節高度(e)與節徑(p)之熱傳增強管,以進行熱傳性能與壓降之量測,所考慮之工作流體分別為空氣、水與乙二醇水溶液(體積比率 = 0.333)等三種。熱傳量測系統為同心管之型式,內管為測試銅管,其內部通過工作流體,內管與外管間則通過蒸氣,經利用等管壁溫度模式計算量測獲得之溫度,而得到測試管之平均熱對流係數與紐塞數(Nu)。壓降之量測乃利用U型管進行,考慮之流體為25 oC等溫之狀態,量測之資料經計算,而獲得各測試管在不同流量下之摩擦因子(f)。此研究中所獲得之紐塞數經相關性分析而表示為e/d、p/d、雷諾數(Re)與普朗特數(Pr)之函數,結果顯示,Nu值與Pr值之0.45次方成正比;熱傳增強管量測之資料經與光滑圓管量測之資料比較後,亦獲得各支測試管之熱傳增強指數(r1)與機械耗損功率指數(r2)。此研究亦擷取文獻中之資料,而獲得環節溝徑-管徑比(da/d) 與Nu值及f值間之相關性;同時由具環節熱傳增強管與具螺旋彈簧熱傳增強管之比較後顯示,當工作流體為水時,前者熱傳增強效果較佳;當工作流體為空氣時,後者則較佳。
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