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標題: 以氧化鋅為中間層行玻璃表面金屬化
Using Zinc Oxide as Intermediate Layer for Glass Metallization
作者: Chi-Wen Cheng
關鍵字: no;氧化鋅;摻鋁氧化鋅;玻璃金屬化;奈米銅觸媒;無電電鍍銅
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晶片封裝技術中,2.5維/3維空間之晶片堆疊技術是未來封裝技術的導向,2.5D/3D 晶片封裝技術,透過將多顆晶片採取上下導通的架構進行垂直整合,此技術中,中介層扮演著重要的角色,以通孔作為晶片間互相連接的橋梁,讓2.5D/3D IC晶片封裝技術不僅縮短了信號的傳輸距離,對於寸土寸金的電路板而言,更具有小體積、高異質整合度、高效率、低耗電量及成本之優勢。以玻璃為基材行表面金屬化,不但具有降低成本的優勢,且玻璃為透光的材料,但玻璃具有光滑和不導電的表面,這些特性,使得玻璃難以進行金屬化。為了克服這個問題,利用溶膠 - 凝膠法製造氧化鋅作為中間附著層,再以無電電鍍進行銅金屬化,不需使用蝕刻的方式破壞玻璃表面,不採用高成本的乾式製程(濺射法),也可達到高附著性且導電良好之銅金屬層。以奈米銅粒子取代氯化鈀,不但在室溫下有良好的化學鍍銅催化效果與鍍析速度,更大幅降低製程成本。此外,本研究使用微量摻雜的概念,將微量氯化鋁摻雜在氧化鋅溶膠 - 凝膠溶液中,鋁摻雜氧化鋅不但可發揮中間附著層的作用,更是一個導電層。利用其導電特性,對其行直接電鍍,搭配鹼性電鍍銅配方,省略了無電電鍍的繁瑣步驟,獲得高附著性高導電性的銅金屬層披覆之玻璃基材。

For the chip packaging technology, the 2.5-dimensional / three-dimensional of the chip stacking technology is future-oriented packaging technology. The 2.5D/3D IC chip stacking technology is to connect chips in vertical integration, in this technology, interposers play important roles, which are important as bridges to the through-hole interconnection between chips. The 2.5D/3D IC chip technology not only shortens the transmission distance of the signal, but also have small volume, high Heterogeneous integration, high efficiency, low power consumption and cost advantages.
However, glass wafer has a smooth and non-conductive surface, which is difficult to be metallized. To overcome this problem, sol-gel method was employed to make a zinc oxide layer as an intermediate for copper metallization of a glass wafer. The advantage of the process is that an etching step is not employed and the process cost is lower than those of sputtering or other dry processes. In this work copper nanoparticles (CuNPs) instead of palladium were employed as the catalyst for copper electroless plating because the cost of palladium is far higher than that of copper. In this process, zinc oxide plays an important role as an adhesion layer between the copper film and the glass. It was called an adhesive interlayer.
In addition, a small amount of aluminum chloride was added in the sol-gel of zinc oxide precursor to produce an aluminum-doped zinc oxide. Aluminum-doped zinc oxide not only plays a role of adhesive interlayer, but also a conducting layer. As a result, copper can be directly electroplated on the aluminum-doped zinc oxide/glass.
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