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標題: Ni/SiO2殼核觸媒應用於催化模擬廢塑膠氣化之混合氣產氫
Ni/SiO2 core-shell catalysts for catalytic hydrogen production from simulated mixed gas derived from the plastic waste gasification
作者: Li-Ru Xu
關鍵字: 氫氣;廢塑膠氣化;殼核觸媒;水氣;hydrogen;plastic waste gasification;core-shell catalyst;steam
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本研究改變製備溶劑(甲醇、乙醇或異丙醇)藉由Stöber 法製備SiO2核顆粒,再以沉積沉澱法製備Ni/SiO2殼核觸媒,並將其應用於催化模擬廢塑膠氣化產生之混合氣產氫,了解核結構合成參數對整體Ni/SiO2殼核觸媒的影響,以獲得良好活性相-擔體鍵結強度、提升金屬活性相分散性與降低活性相晶粒尺寸之目的。亦藉由FESEM、XRD、FTIR、TEM、H2-TPR及BET等儀器分析鑑定觸媒的物化特性。
於Stöber 法的製備程序中改變不同溶劑,因溶劑本身介電常數差異,使SiO2成核過程因靜電斥力與凡得瓦爾力的不同而產生顆粒大小的區別,粒徑大小依序為:SiO2-甲醇 < SiO2-乙醇 < SiO2-異丙醇。甲醇溶劑因介電常數大,能合成出粒徑最小且比表面積大的SiO2顆粒,所以於沉積沉澱法披覆Ni後,能增加Ni於SiO2核上的分散性;由TEM影像可觀察出其Ni金屬顆粒最小;而H2-TPR分析則得到Ni/SiO2-甲醇觸媒,有最佳活性相-擔體作用力,所以相較乙醇和異丙醇製備之Ni/SiO2殼核觸媒,Ni/SiO2-甲醇觸媒有最佳催化產氫活性。
催化模擬廢塑膠氣化產生之混合氣的過程中,水氣含量對重組反應的發生與否扮演重要角色,所以藉由改變進氣組成的水氣添加量(0、0.34、0.75 g-H2O/h),了解水氣含量對催化模擬廢塑膠氣化產生之混合氣產氫的影響。由研究結果得知,0.75 g-H2O/h水氣量相較0 g-H2O/h水氣量,於反應溫度600 oC即可因水氣轉移反應而有氫氣產生;相較於0.34 g-H2O/h,其在700及800oC則因水氣量增加,更有利蒸氣重組產氫反應進行,所以進氣組成的水氣含量為0.75 g-H2O/h水氣量較適宜。
為了進一步證實甲醇溶劑製備之Ni/SiO2殼核觸媒,確實有最佳殼-核作用力,以水氣含量0.75 g-H2O/h於800oC下,進行280分鐘的長時間觸媒穩定反應。由H2-TPR分析得知,因甲醇溶劑製備之Ni/SiO2殼核觸媒,殼核結構間能產生使活性相-擔體有良好作用力的鎳層狀矽酸鹽,所以於280分鐘長時間反應展現較好的穩定性。
研究結果得知,選用介電常數較大的甲醇溶劑製備之Ni/ SiO2殼核觸媒應用於模擬廢塑膠氣化產生之混合氣反應中,能有最佳的催化產氫能力,於800oC且水氣添加量0.75 g-H2O/h的條件下能有181 mmol/g-h產氫率。

Take into consideration of today’s global energy crisis to investage the simultaneous recycling of waste plastic and generation of renewable energy in this study. The mixed gas is created by the gasification of waste plastic to produce the clean energy-hydrogen. The H2 production ability has been considerably increased by using Ni/SiO2 core-shell catalyst.
SiO2 prepared by Stöber process was used as supports to prepare nickel core-shell catalyst. This study evaluated the effect of SiO2 core particles in various solvents (methanol, ethanol and isopropanol) on the morphological features and catalytic performances of Ni/SiO2 core-shell catalysts.
Ni/SiO2 core-shell catalysts were prepared by the deposition-precipitation method and it was applied to generate hydrogen from the simulated mixed gas derived from the plastic waste gasification. Different synthesis parameters on the production of Ni/SiO2 core-shell catalyst were investigated to improve the bonding strength between the Ni active phase and SiO2 support, enhance dispersion of Ni/SiO2 and reduce the the grain size of active phase. The physico-chemical properties of the Ni/SiO2 core-shell catalysts were characterized by means of the FESEM, XRD, FTIR, TEM, H2-TPR, and BET method.
Solvents resulted in different particle size of SiO2 support. Due to the difference in dielectric constants of solvents influenced the SiO2 nucleation process by changing the electrostatic repulsion and Van der Waals force of interaction between particles. The particle size of the prepared SiO2 support is in the order: SiO2-methanol < SiO2-ethanol < SiO2-isopropanol. Because of the bigger dielectric constant of methanol resulted in the smallest particle size and largest specific surface area of SiO2 particles which showed good dispersion of Ni/SiO2 core-shell catalyst and bonding between the Ni active phase and SiO2 support.
Previous researches reported that the amount of steam is a key role in the catalystic gasification plastic waste. Further investigation of feed composition with different amounts (0, 0.34, 0.75 g-H2O/h) effected the hydrogen generation of Ni/SiO2-Methanol catalyst. However, Ni/SiO2- Methanol showed no hydrogen production at 600oC in the absence of steam. The Ni/SiO2-M catalyst can benefit by understanding an incresed H2 production rate at high steam content (0.75 g-H2O/h) because of the water gas shift reaction tending to form H2 from CO and H2O. Besides, steam reforming of methane occurs under a high steam content and at a high reaction temperature.
The stability of Ni/SiO2 catalyst prepared with methanol a long term stability test carried out for 280 minutes with a steam content of 0.75 g-H2O/h at 800oC. The overall research confirmed that the Ni/SiO2 core-shell catalyst prepared with methanol has a strong bonding between the active phase and support due to the abundant formation of nickel phyllosilicates. Ni/SiO2- Methanol exhibited better stability during long term stability test.
Experimental results of hydrogen production indicated that the highest catalytic activity is achieved by Ni/SiO2-Methanol catalyst, which is effective in catalytic H2 production from simulated mixed gas derived from the plastic waste gasification. The hydrogen production rate is 181 mmol/g-h at 800oC and steam content (0.75 g-H2O/h).
Rights: 同意授權瀏覽/列印電子全文服務,2018-08-03起公開。
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