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Uncertainty Sequence Patterns Mining by Using Cloud Computing
|關鍵字:||軌跡探勘;Cloud Computing;雲端計算;機率後置樹;Hadoop/MapReduce;Probabilistic Suffix Tree (PST);Uncertainty Data Mining||出版社:||電機工程學系所||引用:|| V. R. Jain, R. Bagree, A. Kumar, P. Ranjan, "wildCENSE: GPS based Animal Tracking System," ISSNIP, 2008  Journey North''s Monarch Butterfly Migration Tracking Project, http://www.learner.org/jnorth/monarch/  C.Roux, R.T.F.Bernard, "Home range size, spatial distribution and habitat use of elephants in two enclosed game reserves in the eastern cape province, south Africa," African J. of Ecology, 2007.  G. Shannon, B. Page, K. Duffy, R. Slotow, "African elephant home range and habitat selection in Pongola game reserve, south Africa,” African Zoology, vol. 41, no. 1, pp.37–44,2006.  "黑面琵鷺衛星追蹤計畫始末," 台灣濕地90 年5 月號第24 期, http://www.wetland.org.tw/about/hope/hope24/24-12.htm.  J.-F. JIN, B.-F. LIU, X. YU, C.-H. LU, "Wintering and Migration of Black-faced Spoonbill in Xinghua Bay,Fujian Province," Chinese Journal of Zoology, issue 1, pp. 47-53,2009.  H. 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序列資料在我們的日常生活中隨處可見，像是生物的基因序列、蛋白質序列、動物季節性的遷徙路徑、車輛移動軌跡等，而序列型樣探勘(sequence pattern mining) 主要是挖掘隱藏在序列資料中特殊、重要、具代表性的特徵(feature)。近來，序列型樣探勘吸引了大量的關注，尤其是在生物資訊領域與時空(spatio-temporal)軌跡探勘領域中。許多序列天生具有一些不確定性，其不確定性可能由許多原因所造成，例如：測量技術的限制、取樣的誤差、隱私保護等等。本論文主要針對這些不確定性序列資料加以研究，以探勘隱藏其中的規律性或特徵。Probabilistic Suffix Tree (PST) 是Variable-length Markov的一種實作，廣泛被應用於各種序列資料的規律性之探勘。由於傳統PST建構演算法處理的是一般確定性序列資料，不適用於探勘不確定性之序列，且由於不確性序列資料的特性，其計算法複雜度更高，而傳統的PST建構演算為集中式、單機環境的演算法，無法負荷大量資料的計算。因此，我們提出適用於雲端Hadoop平台的演算法，利用雲端的平行運算能力以應付大量不確定性資料的型樣探勘。
為驗證CloudPST+ 和CloudPST+_OneScan的效能，我們進行多項實驗，試驗結果顯示CloudPST+_OneScan除了會耗費多一點記憶體，其他方面的表現都比CloudPST+ 來得好。而且CloudPST+_OneScan擁有較好的效能，且具有良好的可擴充性與穩定性。
Sequence data are ubiquitous in our daily life, such as animals’ seasonal migration, DNA/protein sequences, Web browsing sequences. Sequence pattern mining is to discover special, important, and representative features hidden in sequence data. It attracts a lot of attention especially in the domains of bioinformatics and spatio-temporal trajectory data mining. Sequence data are inherently of some uncertainty, and the uncertainty may be caused by many reasons, such as limitations of the measuring technology, sampling error, privacy preserving. In this thesis, we focus on the mining of uncertain sequences to discover hidden patterns by using Probabilistic Suffix Tree (PST). PST is an implementation of Variable-length Markov Model (VMM) that is wildly used in sequence pattern mining in many domains. However, traditional PST building algorithm is designed to mine certain data and inapplicable of mining uncertain sequences. In addition, traditional PST building algorithm is a centralized algorithm such that it is incapable of handling huge amounts of accumulated uncertain data. Therefore, we propose a distributed and parallel algorithm on Hadoop platform to fully utilize the computing power of cloud computing in the uncertain sequence mining.
In the thesis, we propose two distributed and parallel PST building algorithms, named CloudPST+ and CloudPST+_OneScan respectively on the Hadoop platform to speed up the learning process. Specifically, CloudPST+ is of Map/Reduce framework that builds a PST in an iterative and levels by levels manner to avoid learning excessive patterns and trade off the overhead of distributed computing. CloudPST+_OneScan extends CloudPST+ and involves a new data structure to store the intermediate statistics so that the One-Scan algorithm only scans the entire sequence data once in each iteration.
To evaluate the performance of CloudPST+ and CloudPST+_OneScan, we implement a naïve approach derived from the well-known Wordcount example of Hadoop/MapReduce and conduct several experiments with a synthetic dataset that is re-generated from a real trajectory dataset. According to our experimental results, CloudPST+ and CloudPST+_OneScan significantly outperform the naïve approach. In addition, sacrificing an extra memory cost, CloudPST+_OneScan shows better efficiency, scalability, and stability than CloudPST+.
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