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dc.description.abstract本篇論文提出了新型的模糊分類器和物體特徵的描述去解決基於視覺上的物體偵測、三維定位和形狀擷取的問題。偵測的物體是設定為表面包含了多種顏色且為不均勻分佈,因此難以擷取物體形狀的資訊。提出的兩個支持向量機訓練的模糊分類器結合零階和擴展式模糊映射的後件部空間。論文提出一個自我分裂分群演算法作作為模糊分類器的前件部參數學習。後件部參數學習是藉由支持向量機去賦予模糊分類器一個高的泛化能力。在一張彩色影像中偵測物體的問題,論文提出了根據物體的顏色組成和它的幾何分佈的顏色做特徵擷取的方法。首先使用自我分裂分群演算法來彈性分割色度飽和度的空間,並由此求取直方圖/熵值色彩特徵。這些顏色特徵送入模糊分類器去偵測物體。對於三維物體的定位,論文使用一個立體攝影機和一個 RGBD 攝影機 (Kinect)。使用立體 RGB 攝影機時,使用其左邊影像完成物體偵測後,再利用自我分裂分群演算法已分割的色度飽和度空間對它鄰近的區域做顏色分割。利用左右影像顏色分割的區域做彼此比對可得差異圖,由此圖可得知物體的深度和形狀。使用 RGBD 攝影機時,在利用顏色特徵產生候選物體後,從攝影機的深度資訊可以用來擷取候選物體的形狀。論文提出一個直方圖分佈為基礎的形狀特徵並用來改善物體偵測的效能,提出的模糊分類器效能、物體偵測、三維定位和形狀擷取的方法是透過不同物體的偵測和比較不同的分類器和偵測方法去評估效能。zh_TW
dc.description.abstractThis dissertation proposes novel fuzzy classifiers (FCs) and object description features to address vision-based object detection, three-dimensional (3D) localization, and shape extraction problems. Appearances of the detected objects are assumed to contain multiple colors in non-homogeneous distributions that make it difficult to extract the object shape information. Two support vector machine (SVM)-trained FCs with zero-order Takagi-Sugeno (TS)-type and expanded rule-mapped consequent spaces are proposed. A self-splitting clustering (SSC) algorithm is proposed to learn the antecedent parameters of the FCs. The consequent parameters are learned through SVMs to endow the FCs with high generalization ability. For object detection in a single color image, color features extracted from the color components of an object and their geometrical distributions are proposed. The SSC algorithm is first used to flexibly partition the hue-saturation (HS) space and then histograms/entropies of color features are derived from the partitioned HS space. These color features are fed to the FC to detect an object. For 3D object localization, the use a stereo red-green-blue (RGB) camera and a RGB-depth (RGBD) camera (Kinect) is studied. For the stereo RGB camera, after the detection of an object in the left image, its nearby regions are color segmented using the SSC-partitioned HS space. Depth and shape of the object are found by using the disparity map obtained from matching the left and right color segmented regions. For the RGBD camera, after the detection of an object using the color feature, the depth information available from the camera is used to extract the shape of an object. A histogram-based shape feature is proposed to improve the object detection performance. Performance of the proposed FCs, object detection, 3D localization, and shape extraction methods are verified through the detection of different objects and comparisons with various classification and detection approaches.en_US
dc.description.tableofcontents摘 要 i Abstract ii List of Tables vi List of Figures viii Chapter 1 Introduction 1 1.1. Literature Review 1 1.1.1. Fuzzy Classifiers 1 1.1.2. Color-based Object Detection 3 1.1.3. Object 3D Location and Shape Extraction Using a Stereo/Kinect Camera 5 1.2. Contributions of the Dissertation 6 1.3. Organization of this Dissertation 8 Chapter 2 Color-based Object Detection and Localization Using Fuzzy Histograms and A Fuzzy Classifier 10 2.1. Fuzzy Classifier 10 2.1.1. Rules and Functions of FC-SSCSVM 10 2.1.2. Antecedent Parameter Learning 12 2.1.3. Consequent Parameter Learning 15 2.2. Object Detection Using Fuzzy Color Histogram 17 2.2.1. Fuzzy Color Histogram 17 2.2.2. Multi-resolution and Window Scanning Process 20 2.3. Object Depth Computation and Shape Extraction Using Disparity Map 22 2.3.1. Image Representation and Matching Measure 22 2.3.2. Object Depth Computation 24 2.3.3. Disparity Map and Object Shape Extraction 26 2.4. Experiments 30 2.4.1. Object Detection Performance 30 2.4.2. Comparisons with Different Detection Approaches 34 2.4.3. Depth Computation and Shape Extraction Results 37 2.4.4. Comparisons With Different Image Representations for Disparity Computations 38 Chapter 3 Object Detection Using Color Entropies Components and Geometric Color Distributions 45 3.1. Entropy of Color Components in Filtering Phase One 45 3.1.1. Extraction of the ECC Feature 46 3.2. Entropies of Geometric Color Distributions in Filtering Phase Two 50 3.2.1. Extraction of the EGCD Feature 50 3.3. Experiments 53 3.3.1. Object Detection Performance 53 3.3.2. Comparisons with Other Classifiers 56 3.3.3. Comparisons with other Object Detection Methods 59 Chapter 4 A Self-Splitting Fuzzy Classifier with Support Vector Learning in High-Order Expanded Consequent Space 61 4.1. SFC-SVHC Structure 61 4.1.1. SFC-SVHC Structure and Functions 61 4.1.2. Multiclass classification 65 4.2. SFC-SVHC Learning 66 4.2.1. SFC-SVHC Antecedent-part Learning 66 4.2.2. Support Vector-based Parameter Learning In Expanded Rule-Mapped Consequent Space 66 4.3. Experimental Results 69 Experiment 1 (performance of the SFC-SVHC) 71 Experiment 2 (comparisons with various FCs) 74 Experiment 3 (comparisons with non-fuzzy classification models) 74 4.4. Discussions 77 4.4.1. Performance Comparison 77 4.4.2. Rule Number Selection And Convenience of Different FCs 79 4.4.3. Learning Efficiency Comparison 80 Chapter 5 Object Detection Using Color and Shape Features Using a RGBD Camera 83 5.1. Object Detection Process and 3D Location 83 5.2. Shape-based Detection by Kinect D Component 85 5.2.1. Shape Contour Histogram Feature 85 5.2.2. Object Shape Matching Method and Shape Detection 89 5.3. Experiments 94 5.3.1. Hardware and Software of the Object Detection System 94 5.3.2. Detection Performance and Comparisons with Other Classifiers and Other Detection Methods 96 Chapter 6 Conclusions 103 References 105 Publication List 114zh_TW
dc.subjectobject detectionen_US
dc.subjectfuzzy classifieren_US
dc.subject3D localizationen_US
dc.subjectcolor featureen_US
dc.titleObject Detection and 3D Localization Using Color/Shape Features with Novel Fuzzy Classifiersen_US
dc.typeThesis and Dissertationzh_TW
item.openairetypeThesis and Dissertation-
item.fulltextno fulltext-
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