Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/9196
標題: 單一控制器之多相位全整合降壓轉換器
A Fully Integrated Multi-phase Buck Converter with a single Controller
作者: 洪暐閔
Hong, Wei-Mim
關鍵字: 多相位;Multi-phase;整合;降壓;Integrated;Buck
出版社: 電機工程學系所
引用: [1] 電子工程專輯, http://www.eettaiwan.com/ [2] 全球中文文化性電子產業社群平台, http://www.ctimes.com.tw/News/ShowNews.asp?O=HJUCD96L896SA-ZA22  [3] N. Mohan, T. M. Undeland, W. P. Rabbins, Power Electronics, 3rd edition, Chapter 7, John Wiley & Sons, Inc., 2003. [4] G. Palumbo and D. Pappalar, “Charge pump circuits: An overview on design strategies and topologies,” IEEE Circuits Syst. Mag., vol. 10, no. 1, pp. 31-45, First Quarter, 2010. [5] Jeff Falin, “智慧型手機電源管理系統的設計,” 零組件雜誌, 2004年, 6月號. [6] 梁適安, “交換式電源供給器之理論與實務設計,” 全華科技圖書股份有限公司, 台北市, 1994.  [7] 梁適安, 高頻交換式電源供給器原理與設計, 全華科技圖書股份有限公司, 台北市, 2005. [8] 易明進,全陶瓷輸出電容器在降壓型電源轉換器中穩定操作的分析與實現, 中華民國九十六年十月. [9] M. O’Loughlin, Texas Instrument, “電源供應器的隱藏限制,” 新電子科技雜誌, 2004年, 9月號. [10] T. Sato, T. Nabeshima, K. Nabeshima, T. Nakano, “Multi-phase converter controlled by hysteretic PWM method,” in Proc. Power Conversion Conference, Apr. 2007, pp. 1134-1138. [11] 唐經洲, “從3D IC/TSV的不同名詞看3D IC技術,” 零組件雜誌, 2010年5月. [12] 唐經洲, “垂直堆疊優勢多3D IC倒吃甘蔗,” 新通訊, 2010年3月號109期《封面故事》. [13] 工業技術研究院, 3D IC之半導體製程技術評估報告,2008. [14] Y.-P. Huang, Y.-P. Su, Y.-H. Lee, K.-Y. Chu, C.-J. Shih, K.-H. Chen, M.-J. Du, S.-H. Cheng, “Single controller current balance (SCCB) technique for voltage-mode multi-phase buck converter,” in Proc. IEEE International Symposium on Circuit and Systems, May. 2011, pp. 15-18. [15] L. Xue, P. Hazucha, T. Karnik, R. Bashirullah, “A delay-locked loop synchronization scheme for high-frequency multiphase hysteretic DC-DC converter,” IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, vol. 44, no. 11, pp. 3131-3145, Nov. 2009. [16] Y. Panov, M. M. Jovanovic, “Loop gain measurement of paralleled dc-dc converter with average-current-sharing control,” in Proc. IEEE Applied Power Electronic Conference and Exposition, Feb. 2008, pp. 1048-1053. [17] P. Hazucha, G. Schrom, J. Hahn, B. A. Bloechel, P. Hack, G. E. Dermer, S. Narendra, D. Gardner, T. Karnik, V. De, S. Borkar, “A 233-MHz 80%-87% efficient four-phase DC-DC converter utilizing air-core inductors on package,” IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, vol. 40, no. 4, pp. 838-845, Nov. 2005. [18] S. Abedinpour, B. Bakkaloglu, S. Kiaei, “A multi-stage interleaved synchronous buck converter with integrated output filter in a 0.18μm SiGe process,” IEEE Transaction on Power Electronics, vol. 22, no. 6, pp. 2164-2175, Nov. 2007. [19] H.-I. Wang, S.-L. Hsieh, L.-P. Tai, J.-M. Liu, “Multi-phase DC-DC buck converter with multi-phase current balance and adjustable load regulation,” US patent 6670794, Dec. 2003. [20] P. S. Shenoy, P. T. Krein, “Local control of multiple module dc-dc converter,” in Proc. IEEE Workshop on Control and Modeling for Power Electronics, Jun. 2010, pp. 1-6. [21] J. Alico, A. Prodic, “Multiphase optimal response mixed-signal current-programmed mode controller,” in Proc. IEEE Applied Power Electronics Conference and Exposition, Feb. 2010, pp. 1113-1118. [22] T. Taufik, R. Praestyo, D. Dolan, D. Garinto, “A new multiphase multi-interleaving buck converter with bypass LC,” in Proc. IEEE Industrial on Annual Conference Electronics Society, Nov. 2010, pp. 291-295. [23] J. Wibben, R. Harjani, “A high-efficiency DC-DC converter using 2nH integrated inductor,” IEEE Journal of Solid-State Circuits, vol. 43, no. 4, pp. 844-854, Apr. 2008. [24] M. Wens, M. Steyaert, “A fully-integrated 130nm CMOS DC-DC step-down converter, regulated by a constant on/off-time control system,” in Proc. 34th European Solid-State Circuits Conference, Sep. 2008, pp. 62-65. [25] M. Wens, M. S. J. Steyaert, “A fully integrated CMOS 800-mW four-phase semiconstant on/off-time step-down converter,” IEEE Transaction on Power Electronics, vol. 26, no. 2, pp. 326-333, Nov. 2011.
摘要: 
在高科技快速發展的今日,對電子產品各種功能的要求也越來越高,除了原本所重視的效率之外,輕薄短小便是所遵循的設計概念,尤其在可攜式裝置上越顯重要,傳統電壓穩壓器的電容與電感都是使用外接元件的方式,但所需要的面積往往很大,所以將被動元件整合以3D IC技術整合於單一晶片上,使整體面積縮小;加上各類電子產品功能越來越多樣化,所需要的電流也越大,一般積體化電路所能提供的電流有限,因此加入多相位控制使電路可以供應較大的電流,利於後續電路提供更多功能。
為了將全部被動元件整合於晶片之內,電容與電感的尺寸便不能太大,必須將其縮小至奈米大小左右,因此必須將穩壓器的操作頻率提高,本論文採用高速壓控脈衝寬度調控;整體電路由誤差放大器、高速比較器、鋸齒波產生器、相位延遲控制、非重疊時脈驅動電路、功率級與被動元件所構成。在控制電路方面,使用TSMC 0.18μm CMOS Mixed Signal RF General Purpose MiM Al 1P6M 1.8&3.3V製程實現,;在於被動元件部分,則利用tMt Glass Substrate Integrated Passive Device(IPD) Process製程實現。
本電路使用台積電TSMC 0.18μm CMOS與GIPD製程分別實現控制電路與被動元件,再利用3D IC技術堆疊而成,電壓轉換為1.8V降壓至1V,輸出漣波小於70mV,最大負載電流為500mA,最高功率轉換效率為56%。

Customers have higher and higher request for electronic products since high technology industry nowadays has been developing rapidly. Besides the efficiency, the concept of design now is based on compact size, which is especially important for portable devices. Generally speaking, it occupies a lot of space to have the external components like capacitors and inductors which are used in traditional voltage converters. However, using 3D IC technology to integrate passive components into a single chip reduces the size overall. As the electronic products have become more multi-functional, they need larger and larger amount of current. Usually, integrated circuit can only provide limited amount of current; hence adding the multi-phase control circuit to supply larger amount of current for the subsequent circuits to provide more functionality.
If we integrate all of components into a chip, the size of capacitors and inductors can not be so bulky. Therefore, we have to decrease the capacitors and inductors to nanometer-scale by increasing the switching frequency of the converter. The converter in this thesis uses high-speed voltage pulse width control. The circuit is composed of error amplifier, high-speed comparator, ramp generator, phase delay control, non-overlap driving circuit, power stage, and passive components. The controller circuit is designed using TSMC 0.18μm CMOS Mixed Signal RF General Purpose MiM Al 1P6M 1.8&3.3V process and tMt Glass Substrate Integrated Passive Device (IPD) Process is used to implement the passive components. Then 3D IC technology is utilized to integrate these two dice. The voltage conversion is from 1.8V down to 1V, the output ripple is less than 70mV, the maximum load current is 500mA, and the maximum power conversion efficiency is 56%.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/9196
其他識別: U0005-2008201214551300
Appears in Collections:電機工程學系所

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