Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item:
標題: 色彩知覺對食慾的影響:從心理錯覺觀點探討
The effects of color perception on appetite: An outlook of psychological illusions
作者: Wen-Yu Tsai
關鍵字: 色彩知覺;環境因素;音樂節奏;食物攝取量;color perception;environmental factor;music tempo;food intake
引用: Areni, C. S., & Kim, D. (1993). The influence of background music on shopping behavior: Classical versus top-forty music in a wine store. Advances in Consumer Research, 20(1), 336-340. Babicz-Zielinska, E. (1999). Food preferences among the Polish young adults. Food Quality and Preference, 10(2), 139-145. Bellizzi, J. A., & Hite, R. E. (1992). Environmental color, consumer feelings, and purchase likelihood. Psychology & Marketing, 9(5), 347-363. Block, J. P., Gillman, M. W., Linakis, S. K., & Goldman, R. E. (2013). 'If It tastes good, i'm drinking it': Qualitative study of beverage consumption among college students. Journal of Adolescent Health, 52(6), 702-706. Bloj, M., & Hedrich, M. (2012). Color perception handbook of visual display technology.NJ : Springer. Bongers, P., Jansen, A., Havermans, R., Roefs, A., & Nederkoorn, C. (2013). Happy eating. The underestimated role of overeating in a positive mood. Appetite, 67, 74-80. Boyatzis, C. J., & Varghese, R. (1994). Children's emotional associations with colors. The Journal of Genetic Psychology, 155(1), 77. Bruno, N., Martani, M., Corsini, C., & Oleari, C. (2013). The effect of the color red on consuming food does not depend on achromatic (Michelson) contrast and extends to rubbing cream on the skin. Appetite, 71, 307-313. Caldwell, C., & Hibbert, S. A. (2002). The influence of music tempo and musical preference on restaurant patrons' behavior. Psychology & Marketing, 19(11), 895-917. Cho, S., Han, A., Taylor, M., Huck, A., Mishler, A., Mattal, K., . . . Seo, H.-S. (2015). Blue lighting decreases the amount of food consumed in men, but not in women. Appetite, 85, 111-117. Elliot, A. J., & Maier, M. A. (2007). Color and psychological functioning. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 16(5), 250-254. Elliot, A. J., Maier, M. A., Binser, M. J., Friedman, R., & Pekrun, R. (2009). The effect of red on avoidance behavior in achievement contexts. Personality and Social Psychology Bulletin, 35(3), 365-375. Elmadfa, I. (2005). Diet diversification and health promotion. New York : Karger. Evans, M. (2006). Consumer behaviour. NJ : John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. Evers, C., Adriaanse, M., de Ridder, D. T., & de Witt Huberts, J. C. (2013). Good mood food. Positive emotion as a neglected trigger for food intake. Appetite, 68, 1-7. Fairchild, M. D. (2013). Color appearance models. NJ : J. Wiley. Fraser, C., & Bradford, J. A. (2013). Music to your brain: Background music changes are processed first, reducing ad message recall. Psychology & Marketing, 30(1), 62-75. Genschow, O., Reutner, L., & Wänke, M. (2012). The color red reduces snack food and soft drink intake. Appetite, 58(2), 699-702. Goldstein, E. (2009). Sensation and perception. Belmont: Wadsworth Cengage Learning Gorn, G. J., Chattopadhyay, A., Sengupta, J., & Tripathi, S. (2004). Waiting for the web: How screen color affects time perception. Journal of Marketing Research, 41(2), 215-225. Guéguen, N. (2003). The effect of glass colour on the evaluation of a beverage's thirst-quenching quality. Current Psychology Letters Brain Behaviour and Cognition, 11, 1-6. Harrar, V., & Spence, C. (2013). The taste of cutlery: How the taste of food is affected by the weight, size, shape, and colour of the cutlery used to eat it. Flavour, 2(1), 1-13. Hasenbeck, A., Cho, S., Tokar, T., Yang, F., Meullenet, J.-F., Huddleston, E., & Seo, H.-S. (2014). Color and illuminance level of lighting can modulate willingness to eat bell peppers. Journal of the Science of Food and Agriculture, 94(10), 2049-2056. Hemphill, M. (1996). A note on adults' color–emotion associations. The Journal of Genetic Psychology, 157(3), 275-280. Holtzschue, L. (1995). Understanding color : An introduction for designers. New York : Van Nostrand Reinhold. Jacobs, K. W., & Hustmyer Jr, F. E. (1974). Effects of four psychological primary colors on GSR, heart rate and respiration rate. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 38(3), 763-766. Jacobs, K. W., & Suess, J. F. (1975). Effects of four psychological primary colors on anxiety state. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 41(1), 207-210. Jain, R., & Bagdare. (2011). Music and consumption experience: a review. International Journal of Retail & Distribution Management, 39(4), 289-302. Kellaris, J., & Mantel, S. (1996). Shaping time perceptions with background music: The effect of congruity and arousal on estimates of ad durations. Psychology & Marketing, 13(5), 501-515. Knoferle, K., Spangenberg, E., Herrmann, A., & Landwehr, J. (2012). It is all in the mix: The interactive effect of music tempo and mode on in-store sales. Marketing Letters, 23(1), 325-337. Kotler, P. (1973). Atmospherics as a marketing tool. Journal of Retailing, 49(4), 48-64. Labrecque, L. I., & Milne, G. R. (2012). Exciting red and competent blue: The importance of color in marketing. Journal of the Academy of Marketing Science, 40(5), 711-727. Labrecque, L. I., Patrick, V. M., & Milne, G. R. (2013). The marketers' prismatic palette: A review of color research and future directions. Psychology & Marketing, 30(2), 187-202. Liu, C. H., Xie, B., Chou, C. P., Koprowski, C., Zhou, D. J., Palmer, P., . . . Johnson, C. A. (2007). Perceived stress, depression and food consumption frequency in the college students of China seven cities. Physiology & Behavior, 92(4), 748-754. doi: 10.1016/j.physbeh.2007.05.068 Lowe, M. R., & Fisher, E. B. (1983). Emotional reactivity, emotional eating, and obesity: A naturalistic study. Journal of Behavioral Medicine, 6(2), 135-149. Malhotra, N. K. (2009). Marketing research: An applied orientation. New York: Pearson. Mehta, R., & Zhu, R. J. (2009). Blue or red? Exploring the effect of color on cognitive task performances. Science, 323(5918), 1226-1229. Milliman, R. E. (1982). Using background music to affect the behavior of supermarket shoppers. Journal of Marketing, 46(3), 86-91. Milliman, R. E. (1986). The influence of background music on the behavior of restaurant patrons. Journal of Consumer Research, 13(2),286-289. Mishra, A., Mishra, H., & Masters, T. M. (2012). The influence of bite size on quantity of food consumed: A field study. Journal of Consumer Research, 38(5), 791-795. Morrison, M., Gan, S., Dubelaar, C., & Oppewal, H. (2011). In-store music and aroma influences on shopper behavior and satisfaction. Journal of Business Research, 64(6), 558-564. Mueller Loose, S., & Jaeger, S. R. (2012). Factors that influence beverage choices at meal times. An application of the food choice kaleidoscope framework. Appetite, 59(3), 826-836. NAz, K., & Epps, H. (2004). Relationship between color and emotion: A study of college students. College Student J, 38(3), 396-405. Neumark Sztainer, D., Story, M., Perry, C., & Casey, M. (1999). Factors Influencing food choices of adolescents. Journal of the American Dietetic Association, 99(8), 929-937. North, A. C., & Hargreaves, D. J. (1996). The effects of music on responses to a dining area. Journal of Environmental Psychology, 16(1), 55-64. North, A. C., & Hargreaves, D. J. (1998). The effect of music on atmosphere and purchase intentions in a cafeteria. Journal of Applied Social Psychology, 28(24), 2254-2273. North, A. C., Shilcock, A., & Hargreaves, D. J. (2003). The effect of musical style on restaurant customers' spending. Environment and Behavior, 35(5), 712-718. doi: 10.1177/0013916503254749 Palmer, S. E., Schloss, K. B., Xu, Z., & Prado-León, L. R. (2013). Music–color associations are mediated by emotion. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences, 110(22), 8836-8841. Patel, K. A., & Schlundt, D. G. (2001). Impact of moods and social context on eating behavior. Appetite, 36(2), 111-118. doi: 10.1006/appe.2000.0385 Piqueras-Fiszman, B., Alcaide, J., Roura, E., & Spence, C. (2012). Is it the plate or is it the food? Assessing the influence of the color (black or white) and shape of the plate on the perception of the food placed on it. Food Quality and Preference, 24(1), 205-208. Piqueras‐Fiszman, B., & Spence, C. (2012). The influence of the color of the cup on consumers' perception of a hot beverage. Journal of Sensory Studies, 27(5), 324-331. Puccinelli, N., Chandrashekaran, R., Grewal, D., & Suri, R. (2013). Are men seduced by red? The effect of red versus black prices on price perceptions. Journal of Retailing, 89(2), 115-125. Roballey, T. C., McGreevy, C., Rongo, R. R., Schwantes, M. L., Steger, P. J., Wininger, M. A., & Gardner, E. B. (1985). The effect of music on eating behavior. Bulletin of the Psychonomic Society, 23(3), 221-222. Solomon, M. R. (2012). Consumer behavior: Buying, having, and being.London: Pearson. Spangenberg, E. R. (2005). It's beginning to smell (and sound) a lot like Christmas: the interactive effects of ambient scent and music in a retail setting. Journal of Business Research, 58(11), 1583. Spence, C., Harrar, V., & Piqueras-Fiszman, B. (2012). Assessing the impact of the tableware and other contextual variables on multisensory flavour perception. Flavour, 1(1), 7-18. Spence, C., Puccinelli, N., Grewal, D., & Roggeveen, A. (2014). Store atmospherics: A multisensory perspective. Psychology & Marketing, 31(7), 472-488. Stroebele, N., & De Castro, J. (2004). Effect of ambience on food intake and food choice. Nutrition, 20(9), 821-838. Stroebele, N., & de Castro, J. M. (2006). Listening to music while eating is related to increases in people's food intake and meal duration. Appetite, 47(3), 285-289. Summers, T. A., & Hebert, P. R. (2001). Shedding some light on store atmospherics: Influence of illumination on consumer behavior. Journal of Business Research, 54(2), 145-150. Viskaal-van Dongen, M., Kok, F. J., & de Graaf, C. (2011). Eating rate of commonly consumed foods promotes food and energy intake. Appetite, 56(1), 25-31. Vorobyev, M. (2004). Ecology and evolution of primate colour vision. Clinical & Experimental Optometry : Journal of the Australian Optometrical Association, 87(4-5), 230-238. Wansink, B. (2004). Environmental factors that increase the food intake and consumption volume of unknowing consumers. Annu. Rev. Nutr., 24, 455-479. Wansink, B., Cheney, M., & Chan, N. (2003). Exploring comfort food preferences across age and gender. Physiology & Behavior, 79(4-5), 739-747. Wansink, B., & Kim, J. (2005). Bad popcorn in big buckets: portion size can influence intake as much as taste. Journal of Nutrition Education and Behavior, 37(5), 242-245. Wansink, B., Painter, J. E., & North, J. (2005). Bottomless bowls: Why visual cues of portion size may influence intake. Obesity Research, 13(1), 93-100. Wansink, B., Shimizu, M., Cardello, A. V., & Wright, A. O. (2012). Dining in the dark: How uncertainty influences food acceptance in the absence of light. Food Quality and Preference, 24(1), 209-212. Wansink, B., & Van Ittersum, K. (2003). Bottoms up! The influence of elongation on pouring and consumption volume. Journal of Consumer Research, 30(3), 455-463. Wansink, B., & Van Ittersum, K. (2005). Shape of glass and amount of alcohol poured: Comparative study of effect of practice and concentration. British Medical Journal, 331(7531), 1512-1514. Wansink, B., & Van Ittersum, K. (2012). Fast food restaurant lighting and music can reduce calorie intake and increase satisfaction. Psychological Reports, 111(1), 228 -232. Wansink, B., Van Ittersum, K., & Painter, J. E. (2006). Ice cream illusions: Bowls, spoons, and self-served portion sizes. American Journal of Preventive Medicine, 31(3), 240-243. Wardle, J., Haase, A., Steptoe, A., Nillapun, M., Jonwutiwes, K., Bellisle, F., & Bellisie, F. (2004). Gender differences in food choice: The contribution of health beliefs and dieting. Annals of Behavioral Medicine, 27(2), 107-116. Wilson, G. D. (1966). Arousal properties of red versus green. Perceptual and Motor Skills, 23(3), 947-949. Wilson, S. (2003). The effect of music on perceived atmosphere and purchase intentions in a restaurant. Psychology of Music, 31(1), 93-112. Wright, B. (1962). The influence of hue, lightness, and saturation on apparent warmth and weight. The American Journal of Psychology, 232-241. Yalch, R. (1993). Using store music for retail zoning: A field experiment. Advances in Consumer Research, 20(1), 632. Yip, W., Wiessing, K., Budgett, S., & Poppitt, S. (2013). Using a smaller dining plate does not suppress food intake from a buffet lunch meal in overweight, unrestrained women. Appetite, 69, 102-107. Zampini, M., Sanabria, D., Phillips, N., & Spence, C. (2007). The multisensory perception of flavor: Assessing the influence of color cues on flavor discrimination responses. Food Quality and Preference, 18(7), 975-984.
Buffet is a common consumption patterns in Taiwan. The characteristic is that customers pay a unit price and are able to take food unlimitedly in a certain time. However, customers may take too much food which is over one's appetite, and contributes to food waste.In this research, we will find out whether color perception affects costumers' food intake, also makes them self-restraint. Furthermore, in the past research, emotion has impact on personal appetite. The change of environmental factor (for example, music) is one of effects that influences on human emotion. Thus, we will investigate if it may enhance or weaken reinforcement on food intake regarding color perception after adding music tempo, the moderator.
With true experimental design, imitating buffet, we probe the causal relationship between color (red, white, blue), music tempo (fast, slow) and food intake. In study 1, we only investigate food intake affected by color perception. In study 2, further, adding music tempo, we explore the relationship between color, music tempo and food intake. We recruited 96 samples in study 1 and 210 samples in study 2, and analyzed the data by One-Way ANOVA to verify the result.
The results, from the average chart of food intake, indicate that food intake of subjects using blue plates compared to red ones is much less. In addition, under the fast tempo, food intake of subjects using blue plates has a significant reduction apparently. Nevertheless, it is not distinct on the statistic. The purpose of the research is to find out which is the key variable affect food intake and make customers have self-restraint. By controlling color and music tempo, we found that they certainly have influences on customers' food intake. Besides, we anticipate offering a reference for catering industry and help with solving food waste.

研究方法採用真實驗設計,透過模擬自助餐廳的方式,探討色彩(紅、白、藍)、音樂節奏(快、慢)和食物攝取量之間的因果關係。實驗一單獨探討色彩知覺對食物攝取量的影響。實驗二加入音樂節奏,進一步探討色彩、音樂節奏和食物攝取量之間的關聯。實驗一招募到96位受測樣本,實驗二招募到210位受測樣本。這些資料透過One-Way ANOVA進行分析以驗證結果。
Rights: 不同意授權瀏覽/列印電子全文服務
Appears in Collections:行銷學系所

Files in This Item:
File Description SizeFormat Existing users please Login
nchu-104-7102044001-1.pdf2.73 MBAdobe PDFThis file is only available in the university internal network    Request a copy
Show full item record

Google ScholarTM


Items in DSpace are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.