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The Impact of Threshold-based Free Shipping Method, Product Discount, Promotional Framing and Promotion Type on Consumers' Online Purchase Behavior
|關鍵字:||滿額免運費方案;產品折扣;促銷框架;促銷類型;Threshold-based free shipping;Product discount;Promotional framing;Promotion type||引用:||Alford, B. L., & Biswas, A. (2002). The effects of discount level, price consciousness and sale proneness on consumers' price perception and behavioral intention. Journal of Business Research, 55(9), 775-783. Becerril-Arreola, R., Leng, M., & Parlar, M. (2013). Online retailers' promotional pricing, free-shipping threshold, and inventory decisions: A simulation-based analysis. European Journal of Operational Research, 230(2), 272-283. Boone, T., & Ganeshan, R. (2013). Exploratory analysis of free shipping policies of online retailers. International Journal of Production Economics, 143(2), 627-632. Campbell, L., & Diamond, W. D. (1990). Framing and sales promotions: The characteristics of a'Good Deal'. Journal of consumer marketing, 7(4), 25-31. Chandon, P., Wansink, B., & Laurent, G. (2000). A benefit congruency framework of sales promotion effectiveness. 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Online stores often employ threshold-based free shipping strategy to attract consumers. For example, the famous brand, Tokichoi offers 'Buy NT$399, free shipping' and Orange Bear provides 'Buy NT$800, free shipping'. Threshold-based free shipping method is when customers' purchase quantity reaches or exceeds a minimum quantity required by retailers; consumers will be offered free shipping service. When employing threshold-based free shipping method, retailers will set different threshold levels based on their capability. Some of the stores decide to use high level of threshold-based free shipping strategy because of the shipping cost. They cannot compensate the cost when employing free shipping method or low level of threshold-based free shipping strategy. However, using high level of threshold-based free shipping strategy will reduce consumers' purchase intention. Therefore, this paper attempts to examine how to not reduce consumers' purchase intention under the condition of employing high level of threshold-based free shipping strategy.
This research conducts 3 studies to examine how price discount (high and low), promotional framing (buy one, get one free and buy 2, get 50% off) and promotion type (monetary and nonmonetary) influence consumers' purchase intention toward threshold-based free shipping strategy. The results indicate that consumers have higher purchase intention when retailers offer low level of threshold-based free shipping method than high level of threshold-based free shipping method. However, this effect will disappear under certain conditions which means that consumers' purchase intention will have no significant differences toward low and high level of threshold-based free shipping strategy. First condition is providing high product discount. Second is providing buy one, get one free rather than buy 2, get 50% off. The final one is nonmonetary condition. It means that when retailers employ these three promotional strategies, even if they provide high threshold level method, consumers' purchase intention will not reduce. We infer that these three strategies can shift consumers' referent and drive their attention away from shipping fees and thereby influence consumers' purchase intention.
Threshold-based free shipping method is an important strategy for online retailers. Nevertheless, previous literatures did not provide suggestions for retailers how to maintain their order incidence when employing high level of threshold-based free shipping strategy. This research provides three moderators that will shift consumers' attention away from shipping fees and influence their purchase intentions when facing threshold-based free shipping strategy. These findings can assist retailers who can only use high level of threshold-based free shipping strategy to maintain the order incidence through providing high product discount, buy one get one free and nonmonetary promotion.
本研究透過三個實驗探討當廠商設置滿額免運費策略時，不同高低的免運費門檻搭配產品折扣（高、低）、促銷框架（買一送一、兩件五折）、促銷類型（金錢性促銷、非金錢性促銷），會如何影響消費者對滿額免運費方案的購買意願。研究結果指出，滿額免運費方案以免運費門檻低相較於門檻高，會使消費者有較高的購買意願，但是此效果在幾種情況下會消失，亦即消費者對高低門檻的購買意願無顯著差異，(1) 高產品折扣 (如五折)，(2) 買一送一之促銷框架，而非兩件五折 (3)非金錢性促銷 (如贈品)，換言之，廠商若採用此三種促銷策略，即使提供高門檻情境，消費者的購買意願亦不會降低。本研究推論可能是因為參考點的移轉以及消費者會以促銷的本質來決定將促銷交易視為獲利亦或是減少損失，使消費者轉移對運費注意力，並因而改變其購買意願。
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