Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item:
標題: 品牌擬人化在負面事件中之影響
The Influence of Brand Anthropomorphization in Negative Publicity
作者: Yi-Hui Chen
關鍵字: 品牌擬人化;負面事件;危機責任;品牌態度;品牌信任;brand anthropomorphization;negative publicity;crisis responsibility;brand attitude;brand trust
引用: Aggarwal, P., & McGill, A. L. (2007). Is that car smiling at me? Schema congruity as a basis for evaluating anthropomorphized products. Journal of consumer research, 34(4), 468-479. Aggarwal, P., & McGill, A. L. (2012). When brands seem human, do humans act like brands? Automatic behavioral priming effects of brand anthropomorphism. Journal of consumer research, 39(2), 307-323. Ahluwalia, R., Burnkrant, R. E., & Unnava, H. R. (2000). Consumer response to negative publicity: The moderating role of commitment. Journal of marketing Research, 37(2), 203-214. Bilkey, W. J., & Nes, E. (1982). Country-of-origin effects on product evaluations. Journal of international business studies, 13(1), 89-100. Brown, T. J., & Dacin, P. A. (1997). The company and the product: Corporate associations and consumer product responses. Journal of marketing, 68-84. Brown, K. A., & Ki, E.-J. (2013). Developing a valid and reliable measure of organizational crisis responsibility. Journalism & mass communication quarterly, 90(2), 363-384. Cho, S. H., & Gower, K. K. (2006). Framing effect on the public's response to crisis: Human interest frame and crisis type influencing responsibility and blame. Public relations review, 32(4), 420-422. Connell, P. M. (2013). The role of baseline physical similarity to humans in consumer responses to anthropomorphic animal images. Psychology & marketing, 30(6), 461-468. Coombs, W. T. (1995). Choosing the Right Words The Development of Guidelines for the Selection of the 'Appropriate' Crisis-Response Strategies. Management communication quarterly, 8(4), 447-476. Coombs, W. T. (2004). Impact of past crises on current crisis communication insights from Situational Crisis Communication Theory. Journal of business communication, 41(3), 265-289. Coombs, W. T. (2006). The protective powers of crisis response strategies: Managing reputational assets during a crisis. Journal of promotion management, 12(3-4), 241-260. Coombs, W. T. (2007). Protecting organization reputations during a crisis: The development and application of situational crisis communication theory. Corporate reputation review, 10(3), 163-176. Coombs, W. T., & Holladay, S. J. (1996). Communication and attributions in a crisis: An experimental study in crisis communication. Journal of public relations research, 8(4), 279-295. Coombs, W. T., & Holladay, S. J. (2002). Helping crisis managers protect reputational assets. Management communication quarterly, 16(2), 165-186. Coombs, W. T., & Holladay, S. J. (2007). The negative communication dynamic: Exploring the impact of stakeholder affect on behavioral intentions. Journal of communication management, 11(4), 300-312. Coombs, W. T., & Holladay, S. J. (2008). Comparing apology to equivalent crisis response strategies: Clarifying apology's role and value in crisis communication. Public relations review, 34(3), 252-2 Chandler, J., & Schwarz, N. (2010). Use does not wear ragged the fabric of friendship: Thinking of objects as alive makes people less willing to replace them. Journal of consumer psychology, 20(2), 138-145. Dawar, N., & Pillutla, M. M. (2000). Impact of product-harm crises on brand equity: The moderating role of consumer expectations. Journal of marketing research, 37(2), 215-226. Delbaere, M., McQuarrie, E. F., & Phillips, B. J. (2011). Personification in advertising. Journal of advertising, 40(1), 121-130. Delgado-Ballester, E., & Luis Munuera-Alemán, J. (2005). Does brand trust matter to brand equity? Journal of product & brand management, 14(3), 187-196. Epley, N., & Waytz, A. (2009). Mind perception. Handbook of social psychology. 5th ed., S.T. Fiske, D.T. Gilbert, and G. Lindzey, eds. New York: John Wiley & Sons, 498-541. Epley, N., Waytz, A., & Cacioppo, J. T. (2007). On seeing human: a three-factor theory of anthropomorphism. Psychological review, 114(4), 864. Fournier, S. (1998). Consumers and their brands: Developing relationship theory in consumer research. Journal of consumer research, 24(4), 343-353. Garbarino, E., & Johnson, M. S. (1999). The different roles of satisfaction, trust, and commitment in customer relationships. Journal of marketing, 70-87. Guthrie, S. (1997). Anthropomorphism: A Definition and a Theory. Anthropomorphism, anecdotes, and animals, Albany: State University of New York. 50–58. Hayes, A. F. (2012). PROCESS: A versatile computational tool for observed variable mediation, moderation, and conditional process modeling. The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH. Huang, W.H. (2008). The impact of other-customer failure on service satisfaction. International Journal of service industry management, 19(4), 521-536. Kent, R. J., & Allen, C. T. (1994). Competitive interference effects in consumer memory for advertising: the role of brand familiarity. Journal of marketing, 97-105. Kervyn, N., Fiske, S. T., & Malone, C. (2012). Brands as intentional agents framework: How perceived intentions and ability can map brand perception.Journal of consumer psychology: the official journal of the society for consumer psychology, 22(2). Kim, P. H., Dirks, K. T., Cooper, C. D., & Ferrin, D. L. (2006). When more blame is better than less: The implications of internal vs. external attributions for the repair of trust after a competence-vs. integrity-based trust violation. Organizational behavior and human decision processes, 99(1), 49-65. Kim, J., Kim, H. J., & Cameron, G. T. (2009). Making nice may not matter: The interplay of crisis type, response type and crisis issue on perceived organizational responsibility. Public relations review, 35(1), 86-88. Kim, S., & McGill, A. L. (2011). Gaming with Mr. Slot or gaming the slot machine? Power, anthropomorphism, and risk perception. Journal of consumer research, 38(1), 94-107. Landwehr, J. R., McGill, A. L., & Herrmann, A. (2011). It's got the look: The effect of friendly and aggressive 'facial' expressions on product liking and sales. Journal of marketing, 75(3), 132-146. Macintosh, G., & Lockshin, L. S. (1997). Retail relationships and store loyalty: a multi-level perspective. International journal of research in marketing, 14(5), 487-497. Marcus, A. A., & Goodman, R. S. (1991). Victims and shareholders: The dilemmas of presenting corporate policy during a crisis. Academy of management journal, 34(2), 281-305. Money, R. B., Shimp, T. A., & Sakano, T. (2006). Celebrity endorsements in Japan and the United States: Is negative information all that harmful? Journal of advertising research, 46(1), 113. Morgan, R. M., & Hunt, S. D. (1994). The commitment-trust theory of relationship marketing. Journal of marketing, 20-38. Murray, S. L., Pinkus, R. T., Holmes, J. G., Harris, B., Gomillion, S., Aloni, M., Leder, S. (2011). Signaling when (and when not) to be cautious and self-protective: impulsive and reflective trust in close relationships. Journal of personality and social psychology, 101(3), 485. Nass, C., Isbister, K., & Lee, E. J. (2000). Truth is beauty: Researching embodied conversational agents. Embodied conversational agents, 374-402. J. Cassell, J. Sullivan, S. Prévost, and E. Churchill, eds. Cambridge, MA: MIT Press. Nunnally, J. C. (1978). Psychometric theory. New York: McGraw-Hill. Pullig, C., Netemeyer, R. G., & Biswas, A. (2006). Attitude basis, certainty, and challenge alignment: A case of negative brand publicity. Journal of the academy of marketing science, 34(4), 528-542. Puzakova, M., Kwak, H., & Rocereto, J. F. (2009). Pushing the envelope of brand and personality: antecedents and moderators of anthropomorphized brands. Advances in consumer research, 36, 413-420. Puzakova, M., Kwak, H., & Rocereto, J. F. (2013a). Better Not Smile at the Price: The Contradictory Role of Brand Anthropomorphization on Price Fairness. Advances in consumer research, 41. Puzakova, M., Kwak, H., & Rocereto, J. F. (2013b). When humanizing brands goes wrong: the detrimental effect of brand anthropomorphization amid product wrongdoings. Journal of marketing, 77(3), 81-100. Rousseau, D. M. (2006). Is there such a thing as 'evidence-based management'? Academy of management review, 31(2), 256-269. Rousseau, D. M., Sitkin, S. B., Burt, R. S., & Camerer, C. (1998). Not so different after all: A cross-discipline view of trust. Academy of management review, 23(3), 393-404. Shrivastava, P., & Mitroff, I. I. (1987). Strategic management of corporate crises. Columbia journal of world business, 22(1), 5-11. Sicilia, M., & Ruiz, S. (2010). The effect of web-based information availability on consumers' processing and attitudes. Journal of interactive marketing, 24(1), 31-41. Sisco, H. F. (2012). Nonprofit in crisis: An examination of the applicability of situational crisis communication theory. Journal of public relations research, 24(1), 1-17. Teas, R. K., & Agarwal, S. (2000). The effects of extrinsic product cues on consumers' perceptions of quality, sacrifice, and value. Journal of the academy of marketing science, 28(2), 278-290. Tyler, L. (1997). Liability Means Never being Able to Say You're Sorry Corporate Guilt, Legal Constraints, and Defensiveness in Corporate Communication. Management communication quarterly, 11(1), 51-73. Vanhamme, J., & Grobben, B. (2009). 'Too good to be true!' The effectiveness of CSR history in countering negative publicity. Journal of business ethics, 85(2), 273-283. Votola, N. L., & Unnava, H. R. (2006). Spillover of negative information on brand alliances. Journal of consumer psychology, 16(2), 196-202. Waytz, A., Morewedge, C. K., Epley, N., Monteleone, G., Gao, J. H., & Cacioppo, J. T. (2010). Making sense by making sentient: effectance motivation increases anthropomorphism. Journal of personality and social psychology, 99(3), 410. Weiner, B. (1985). An attributional theory of achievement motivation and emotion. Psychological review, 92(4), 548. Weiner, B. (2006). Social motivation, justice, and the moral emotions: An attributional approach, Lawrence Erlbaum Associates, Inc., Mahwah, NJ. Xie, Y., & Peng, S. (2009). How to repair customer trust after negative publicity: The roles of competence, integrity, benevolence, and forgiveness. Psychology & marketing, 26(7), 572-589. Zhao, X., Lynch, J. G., & Chen, Q. (2010). Reconsidering Baron and Kenny: Myths and truths about mediation analysis. Journal of consumer research, 37(2), 197-206.
Most of prior literatures indicated that the using of anthropomorphization creates more favorable consumer reactions and thus enhances brand performance; however, a research yet noticed that priming anthropomorphization would put brands at risk. Hence, the present research follows the research of Puzakova, Kwak, and Rocereto (2013b) to examine the negative repercussion. The objective of this research is to gain insight into the influence of brand anthropomorphization in negative publicity through manipulating the type of negative publicity and the attribution of crisis responsibility.
This research conducts two experiments. Study 1 investigates a fictitious brand of a smart phone and Study 2 investigates an existing brand of a household cleaning product. Results of two studies suggest that: (1) When negative publicity happened, an anthropomorphized brand generated more negative brand attitude change; (2) Brand trust played a mediating role between brand anthropomorphization and brand attitude; (3) Performance-related negative publicity resulted in more negative brand attitude change toward an anthropomorphized brand; however, when values-related negative publicity happened, there were no significant differences in brand attitude change toward either an anthropomorphized or a nonanthropomorphized brand ; (4) When a brand was in a victim attribution, there were no significant difference between negative publicity type and brand anthropomorphization; however, when a brand was in an intentional attribution, there were an interaction between negative publicity type and brand anthropomorphization: performance-related negative publicity resulted in more negative brand attitude change toward an anthropomorphized brand ; values-related negative publicity resulted in more negative brand attitude change toward a nonanthropomoiphized brand.
The current research has some contribution to the brand management literature. Although Puzakova et al. (2013b) indicated that the negative consequences of brand anthropomorphization, the present research points out two moderators to show that the negative consequences would not exist in certain circumstances. This research explain the influence of negative publicity on brand anthropomorphization by means of clarifying negative publicity more precisely. Furthermore, this research enhances the understanding of consumers' processing of negative publicity: brand trust is the psychological mechanism between brand anthropomorphization and brand attitude. These findings share both theoretical and managerial implications.

過去品牌與廣告領域之文獻多證實了擬人化能帶來較高的產品喜好度與品牌態度,進而增加品牌績效;儘管如此,仍有研究發現觸發擬人的知覺可能造成的風險,並探討了品牌擬人化之負面效果,本研究遵循Puzakova、Kwak與Rocereto (2013b) 的腳步,從品牌擬人化的角度出發,藉由操弄負面事件類型與危機責任歸因,探討發生負面事件後,品牌擬人化之有無,是否會因為負面事件類型與危機責任歸因之差異,而影響消費者對有無品牌擬人化之品牌信任與態度的評估。
本研究以實驗設計法進行兩個實驗,分別以虛擬品牌的智慧型手機以及真實品牌橘子工坊的清潔劑作為實驗產品,探討大學生以及一般消費者在面對品牌發生負面事件後的評估。研究結果發現:(1) 在發生負面事件後,有品牌擬人化會對消費者品牌態度之改變產生更負面的影響; (2) 在發生負面事件後,品牌信任為品牌擬人化與品牌態度間的中介變數; (3) 當負面事件類型為表現面,有品牌擬人化對品牌態度改變會產生更負面的影響;當負面事件類型為價值面,品牌擬人化對品牌態度改變無顯著影響; (4) 當危機責任為受害型時,品牌擬人化與負面事件類型無交互效果;當危機責任為故意型時,有無品牌擬人化與負面事件類型便會產生交互效果:當負面事件為表現面,有品牌擬人化對品牌態度的改變會產生更負面的影響;當負面事件為價值面,無品牌擬人化對品牌態度的改變會產生更負面的影響。
本研究之貢獻在於,儘管Puzakova et al. (2013b) 證實了發生負面事件後品牌擬人化帶來的負面影響,但是透過本研究提出的兩個干擾變數,證明了此負面效果其實在某些情境是不存在的,藉由使負面事件輪廓更加清晰來進一步說明負面事件對品牌擬人化效果的影響,此為過去尚未探討的研究缺口。此外,本研究找出負面事件發生後,品牌擬人化對品牌態度的影響路徑是透過品牌信任,此一關鍵心理機制的發現無論是對過去研究或是實務上之品牌管理者皆有相當大的貢獻。
Rights: 同意授權瀏覽/列印電子全文服務,2018-07-24起公開。
Appears in Collections:行銷學系所

Files in This Item:
File SizeFormat Existing users please Login
nchu-104-7102044012-1.pdf2.1 MBAdobe PDFThis file is only available in the university internal network    Request a copy
Show full item record

Google ScholarTM


Items in DSpace are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.