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標題: 回收家用藥物計畫之探討-稅收與補貼的決策
Recycling of Unwanted Medicines from Households in Taiwan: Taxes and Subsidies Policy
作者: Wen-Hui Chang
關鍵字: 藥物再利用;賽局理論;逆物流;unused medicines;game theory;reverse logistic
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Pharmaceuticals in wastewater: Behavior, preferences, and willingness to pay for a disposal program. Journal of Environmental Management, 90(3), 1476-1482. 15.Kuspis, D. A. & Krenzelok, E.P. (1996). What happens to expired medications? A survey of community medication disposal. Veterinary Human Toxiocl, 38(1), 48-49. 16.Kim, K., Song, I., Kim, J. & Jeong, B. (2006). Supply planning model for remanufacturing system in reverse logistics environment. Computers & Industrial Engineering, 51(2), 279-287. 17.Mackridge, A. J. & Marriott, J. F. (2007). Returned medicines: waste or a wasted opportunity? Journal of Public Health, 29(3), 258-262. 18.Marshall, A.(1890). Principles of Economics. Retrieved January 10, 2014, from 19.Nagurney, A. & Toyasaki, F. ( 2005). Reverse supply chain management and electronic waste recycling: a multitiered network equilibrium framework for e-cycling. Transportation Research Part E, 41(1), 1-28. 20.Persson, M., Sabelstrom, E., Gunnarsson, B. (2009). 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The Lancet, 355 (9217), 1789–1790.   (三)網路部分 1.陳佳佳(民100)。健保對高診次民眾的輔導措施。全民健康保險雙月刊,102,7-11。取自 2.波仕特線上調查(民99)。國人生病用藥習慣大調查。取自 3.台北市居家廢棄藥物檢收站(民99)。檢收詳細流程圖示。取自 4.行政院環保署資源回收管理基金管理委員會(民87)。檢收詳細流程圖示。取自 file:///C:/Users/%E6%96%91/Desktop/4_%E6%87%89%E5%9B%9E%E6%94%B6%E5%BB%A2%E6%A3%84%E7%89%A9%E6%A5%AD%E5%8B%99%E5%8F%8A%E4%B8%BB%E7%AE%A1%E6%B3%95%E8%A6%8F%E8%AA%AA%E6%98%8E(%E5%AE%9A%E7%A8%BF%E6%9C%AC).pdf 5.黃筱萍(民103)。居家廢棄藥品處理原則。小港藥訊,55,1-2。取自 6.李曜宇(民100)。高市藥品回收多 健保用藥將近一半。大紀元。取自 7.胡薏文(民103)。東洋胰臟癌口服化療藥 獲健保給付 6/1起生效。鉅亨網。 取自 8.陳怡潔(2010)。簽約金、大陸轉投資挹注 東洋Q2 EPS上看3元。精實新聞。 取自 9.行政院環保署(民98)。應回收廢棄物回收處理業管理制度。台灣:作者。 10.The National Return & Disposal of Unwanted Medicines Limited. (2011). Return your unwanted medicines to your pharmacy for safe disposal. From
Storage of unwanted medicine can lead to medicine toxicity. If the medicine is left around, children can accidentally take medicine by mistake and aged consumers can be confused with many medications and lead to ineffective treatment. In addition, if people do not handle drugs properly, the environment may be exposed to drug residues. In this paper, we conduct a collection system for unwanted household medicines in reverse supply chain, which includes manufacturing, recycling, and governing entities. We suggest the government adopting the method of the taxation and incentive payments to increase recycling amounts thus the social welfare can be maximized.

The patients' unused medicines induce the recycling issue. Many of the medicines in a contact condition are suitable for reusing. Many of the unused medicines are still in full effect. If the medicines are brought back to special hospitals for reusing, it may provide a low-cost source of the hospitals' medicine. As a result, the benefits shall include the reduction in reverse logistics cost, increasing environmental sustainability through the medicines recycling program.

A social welfare maximization model is presented to determine the optimal taxes and subsidies policy, and ordering quantities for the government, pharmaceutical manufacturer, and recycling hospital respectively through the analysis of Stackelberg game. In this three-stage model, the first stage leader is Recycling Fund Management Board of the government; the follower is pharmaceutical manufacturer and recycling hospital. To maximize the social welfare, the government determines the taxes paid by the pharmaceutical manufacturer and the recycling hospital, and the subsidy fees for the recycling hospital when she sells products and processes unwanted medicines. The second stage decision maker is the recycling hospital and the follower is pharmaceutical manufacturer. The recycling hospital is responsible for recycling medicines as a recycling unit of leftover medicine from households. Before releasing the medicine for reusing, the pharmacists would examine the unused medicine. By reusing the unwanted medicines, it brings cost savings and considerable economic benefits for the recycling hospital. Finally, the third stage decision maker is the pharmaceutical manufacturer. After observing the government and recycling hospital's decision, the pharmaceutical manufacturer determines the optimal production/prices for her profit maximization

This research assumes the demand being a linear function of price to simplify the problem complexity. We respectively explore the optimal characteristics of government tax and subsidy policies, and optimal pricing mechanism of pharmaceutical manufacturer and recycling hospital. The strategy mechanism of government, pharmaceutical manufacturers and recycling hospital are implicated by various environmental factors. By performing numerical demonstration and sensitivity analysis, we gain some insight and provide some managerial interpretation against the proposed model.




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