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The Impacts of Gender Diversity of Board and Executives on the Choice of Earnings Management
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Evidence on the trade-off between real activities manipulation and accrual-based earnings management. The Accounting Review 87(2): 675-703||摘要:||
This study first examines whether classification shifting, accruals-based earnings management and real earnings management are substitutes. Then we examine whether the gender diversity of executives and board affect the substitution among the three earningsmanagement methods. The sample companies are obtained from 2002 to 2012.
The empirical results show that (1) there are substitution between classification shifting and accruals earnings management,(2) female CFOs affect the level of accruals-based earnings management, (3) female CEOs affect the level of real earnings management, (4) female participation in boards affect the level of classification shifting and accruals-based earnings management, (5) when the choice of classification shifting is impeded, female executives affect accruals-based earnings management and that (6) when the choice of accrual-based earnings management is impeded, female executives affect real earnings management.
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