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Elucidation of the neuroprotective effects and mechanisms of action by active components from Buyang Huanwu decoction in cellular models
|關鍵字:||細胞凋亡;補陽還五湯;肝醣合成激酶3;雷帕黴素作用標的1;Apoptosis;Buyang Huanwu Decoction;Glycogen synthase kinase-3;mammalian target of rapamycin complex 1||引用:||邱浩彰，在台灣腦中風之現況，醫學繼續教育1996; 6卷二期: 176-181. Allan SM, Rothwell NJ. Cytokines and acute neurodegeneration. Nat Rev Neurosci. 2001; 2(10):734–744. Autophagic effect of programmed cell death 5 (PDCD5) after focal cerebral ischemic reperfusion injury in rats. Neurosci 2014; 566:298-303. Carden DL, Granger DN. Pathophysiology of ischaemia-reperfusion injury. J Pathol 2000; 190:255-266. Chang CC, Wang YH, Chern CM, Liou KT, Hou YC, Peng YT, et al. Prodigiosin inhibits gp91(phox) and iNOS expression to protect mice against the oxidative/nitrosative brain injury induced by hypoxia-ischemia. Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 2011; 257:137–147. Chern CM, Liao JF, Wang YH, Shen YC. Melatonin ameliorates neural function by promoting endogenous neurogenesis through the MT2 melatonin receptor in ischemic-stroke mice. Free Radic Biol Med 2012; 52:1634–2147. 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台灣腦中風在近幾年的流行病學統計中皆為十大死因第二名及第三名。除rt-PA外補陽還五湯 (Buyang Huanwu Decoction, BHD)是華人地區用於輔助治療中風病人後遺症最常用的傳統中藥方劑之一，但其有效成分 (如：4A、X系列 (分離自芍藥)、Y系列 (分離自黃耆)等12種成分)的作用機制並不清楚。為探討BHD不同藥效成分的藥理作用，本研究利用Oxygen / Glucose Deprivation (OGD)及BV-2細胞發炎模式以探討BHD的保護作用機轉。由研究結果可以得知，這12種活性成分並沒有直接清除DPPH及抑制NADPH oxidase (NOX)的作用，但對由LPS活化微膠細胞BV-2產生NO研究顯示X、X8、Y、Y2可顯著抑制BV-2的發炎作用，效果與PDTC (NF-κB抑制劑)相當，將進一步探討是否對iNOS及p65 (NF-κB)有抑制作用。OGD可以活化PI3K/Akt、GSK-3造成Neuro-2a神經細胞凋亡，12種活性成分皆可以有效抑制細胞凋亡及抑制PI3K/Akt、GSK-3活化。OGD亦可造成mTORC1抑制，而4A、X7、Y2、Y3可以逆轉此情形。綜合上述研究顯示BHD保護中風的機制可能透過這些有效成分能分別有效抗發炎 (例：X、X8、F、Y2)，或逆轉OGD造成的PI3K/Akt、GSK-3活化及抑制mTORC1，達到抗細胞凋亡作用。
Acute ischemic stroke (AIS) ranks as the third position among the top ten leading causes of death in Taiwan in recent years. In addition to rt-PA, Buyang Huanwu Decoction (BHD), a famous traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), is one of the most popular used AIS-supporting treatment in Taiwan. Many active compounds such as 4A, as well as compounds X series and Y series have been isolated from Paeonia lactiflora and Astragalus membrane, recently in my laboratory. The aim of this thesis to elucidate how and which component is specifically responsible for neuroprotection and/ or anti-inflammation by these 12 components from BHD using two cellular models i.e., oxygen & glucose deprivation (OGD)-induced N2a apoptosis and lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced BV2 microglial cell activation. Our results showed that all these 12 active components did not directly scavenge DPPH radicals and nor did they inhibit NADPH oxidase (NOX) activity. However they inhibited NO production by LPS-activated microglia with X, X8, Y, and Y2 being as potent as PDTC (a NF-κB inhibitor). Whether these effective compounds also interfered the activity of iNOS and p65NFkB is still under elucidation. Furthermore, OGD induced a dramatic caspases (3, 8, 9, and 12)-, free radical- and calcium-dependent apoptosis of Neuro-2a cells by activation of PI3K/Akt, GSK-3, and suppression of mTORC1 signaling. All these 12 compounds can significantly prevent OGD-induced N2a apoptosis most possibly by inhibiting the activation of PI3K/Akt, GSK-3 and suppression of mTORC1 signaling. We conclude that the AIS protective effect by BHD may rely majorly on the anti-apoptosis and anti-inflammatory activities mediated by these 12 compounds through modulation of PI3K/Akt, GSK-3, and mTORC1 pathways to achieve its neuroprotective effect by BHD. More studies are needed to provide precise mechanisms of action by these compounds.
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