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標題: 快速解碼演算法應用於加減一或二的資料藏匿之研究
A Fast Decoding Algorithm for Data Hiding with Plus-Minus One or Two
作者: 鍾正修
Chung, Cheng-Hsiu
關鍵字: 資料藏匿;data hiding;線性區塊碼;矩陣嵌入;濕紙碼;linear block code;matrix embedding;wet paper code
出版社: 電機工程學系所
引用: [1] F. A. P. Petitcolas, R. J. Anderson, and M. G. Kuhn, “Information hiding—a survey,” Proc. IEEE, vol. 87, no. 6, pp. 1062–1078, Jul. 1999. [2] J. A. Bloom, I. J. Cox, T. Kalker, J.-P. M. G. Linnartz, M. L. Miller, and C. B. S. Traw, “Copy protection for digital video,” Proc. IEEE (Special Issue on Identification and Protection of Multimedia Information), vol. 87, no. 7, pp. 1267–1276, Jul. 1999. [3] R. Crandall, Some Notes on Steganography, 1998. posted on Steganography Mailing List, available from, 1998 [4] I. J. Cox, M. L. Miller, and A. L. Mckellipa, “Watermarking as communications with side information,” Proc. IEEE, vol. 87, no. 7, pp. 1127–1141, Jul. 1999. [5] E. Martinian and G. W. Wornell, “Authentication with distortion constraints,” IEEE Int. Conf. Image Processing, 2002. [6] D. Boneh and J. Shaw, “Collusion-secure fingerprinting for digital data,” IEEE Trans. Inf. Theory, vol. 44, no. 5, pp. 1897–1905, 1998. [7] S. Lin and Dannel J. Costello, Error Control Coding, New Jersey, 2004. [8] J.-J. Wang, H. Chen, and C.-Y. Lin, “An adaptive matrix embedding technique for binary hiding with an efficient LIAE algorithm,” World Scientific and Engineering Academy and Society (WSEAS), vol. 8, issue 2, Apr. 2012. [9] M. J. Wainwright, “Sparse graph codes for side information and binning,” IEEE Signal Process. Mag., vol. 24, no. 5, pp. 47–57, Sep. 2007. [10] J. Bierbrauer, On Crandall''s Problem. 1998 [Online]. Available:, Personal Communication. [11] J. Fridrich, M. Goljan, P. Lisonek, and D. Soukal, “Writing on wet paper,” IEEE Trans. Signal Process., vol. 53, no. 10, pp.3923–3935, Oct. 2005. [12] X. Zhang, “Efficient data hiding with plus-minus one or two,” IEEE Signal Process. Lett., vol. 17, no. 7, pp. 635-638, Jul. 2010. [13] A. Ker, “Steganalysis of LSB matching in grayscale images,” IEEE Singal Process. Lett., vol. 12, no. 6, pp. 441–444, Jun. 2005. [14] J. Fridrich and D. Soukal, “Matrix embedding for large payloads,”IEEE Trans. Inf. Forensics Security, vol. 1, no.3, pp. 390–394, 2006. [15] F. Willems and M. Dijk, “Capacity and codes for embedding information in gray-scale signals,” IEEE Trans. Inform. Theory, vol. 51, no. 3, pp. 1209–1214, May 2005.
在隱匿學(steganography)中,我們會將秘密資訊藏在載體影像當中,在資料藏匿的技術中,藏匿率以及藏匿失真是一個很重要的議題。Zhang運用了矩陣嵌入(matrix embedding)及濕紙碼(wet paper code)的技術提出一個三層的資料藏匿方法,藉由影像的像素加減一或二來使得資料藏匿的藏匿率-藏匿失真函數可以貼近理論極限,不過Zhang提出的方法會隨著所使用的碼長增長而導致藏匿過程的複雜度變高。

在本論文中將使用一個快速的次佳化解碼演算法稱為LIAE(Linear Independent Approximation Embedding)解碼演算法,我們將利用此演算法的特性來解決Zhang方法複雜度過高的問題,雖然在影像失真上會略微提高,但是經由實驗結果發現,我們可以有效的降低解碼複雜度並且快速完成資料藏匿。

In steganoraphy, we embed some secret messages into cover images. Embedding rate and embedding distortion are two important issues in data hiding schemes. Zhang proposes a triple-layered method for data hiding combining matrix embedding and wet paper code. Zhang modified the image pixels by plus-minus one or two to make embedding rate-distortion function approach the theoretical limit. However Zhang''s method can cause high decoding complexity when the code''s length becomes larger.

In this thesis, we use a fast sub-optimal decoding algorithm called LIAE (Linear Independent Approximation Embedding) decoding algorithm. We use LIAE algorithm to solve Zhang''s method for the high complexity problem. The experimental results showed that image''s distortion increase slightly, and we can efficiently decrease the decoding complexity and embed data quickly.
其他識別: U0005-1707201216355200
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