Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/9315
標題: 應用於防撞雷達系統之頻率合成器
A Frequency Synthesizer Implementation of Collision Avoidance Radar Systems
作者: 許祐豪
Hsu, Yu-Hao
關鍵字: 壓控振盪器;Voltage Controlled Oscillator;除頻器;電荷幫浦;相位頻率偵測器;迴路濾波器;Frqeuency Divider;Charge Pump;Phase Frequency Detector;Loop Filter
出版社: 電機工程學系所
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摘要: 
本論文以實現鎖相迴路系統為目標,且在鎖相迴路中以高頻電路為重點區塊,其中的高頻電路有電壓控制振盪器與頻率除頻器,文中將針對此兩電路做改良,使系統能操作在最佳的狀態。而本文中有三個章節的內容是將下線回來的晶片經過下針量測後得到的資料與模擬來比較,並加以討論。
第二章先詳細討論鎖相迴路的概念,需要考慮到的效能有哪些,相位雜訊對整個迴路的影響有多大,以及鎖相迴路是如何讓濾波器上的電壓鎖定,分別對每一個電路區塊的架構和原理做介紹,其中壓控振盪器會較詳細的推導電路相關的相位雜訊、可調範圍與振盪條件,並以數學模型來表示每塊子電路的轉換函數,並以二、三、四階的迴路濾波器來推導各種轉換函數。最後討論各種濾波器對整個迴路的影響。
文中的第一部份是以TSMC40nm製程實現一W band之壓控振盪器與注入鎖定頻率除頻器,此電路是因為頻率較高的關係而暫時先將RF的部份完成,經由量測確認電路可使用後再繼續將整個迴路完成,而量測到的可調範圍為10GHz,上下限從90.5GHz~100.5GHz,相位雜訊在1MHz的偏移量為-64dBc,由頻譜可知其輸出訊號頻率為壓控振盪器產生之頻率的一半,也就是有達到除二的效果,而壓控振盪器的訊號強度為-36dBm,注入鎖定除頻器的訊號強度為-28dBm,消耗功率為16.6mW。
文中的第二部份是以TSMC0.18μm製程實現一5GHz之鎖相迴路,由於此電路是第一次以整個迴路來下線的,所以先以較低的頻率來設計壓控振盪器,也較不會有頻飄的現象發生,而此電路的重點放在鎖相迴路後段類比電路上,為了建立各個子電路的模型以供給往後較高頻的鎖相迴路來使用,由量測結果證明其模型均有正常運作,而鎖相迴路的量測結果方面在可鎖定的範圍約0.8GHz,上下限從4.8GHz~5.6GHz,相位雜訊在1MHz的偏移量為-101.5dBc,輸出之訊號強度為-4dBm,消耗功率為21mW。
最後要討論的部份是操作在汽車倒車雷達上的鎖相迴路,同樣是以TSMC0.18μm製程來實現,此系統在壓控振盪器的部份第一為電晶體並聯的方式來達到增加整體電路的轉導值的方法,使得電路較容易達到振盪條件,第二是源極退化電容架構,利用電晶體的寄生電容來降低整體電路的電容值,來達到較寬的可調範圍。頻率除頻器是將傳統米勒除頻器之共振腔以MOS電阻代替,使共振腔之Q值下降來達到增加鎖定範圍的效果,另外是在輸入端的NMOS加上PMOS以current bleeding來增加注入電流,而此改良也能達到增加鎖定範圍的效果。剩下之類比電路皆使用第二部分的5GHz鎖相迴路所建立的模型,而量測的部份在一開始因為晶片佈局時與接收端電路之LO端相接而有負載效應的影響導致量出來的結果與模擬不符,因而將兩電路短路的金屬層以雷射切割機切斷,再次量測即得到與模擬相近的結果,而可鎖定的範圍約2.2GHz,上下限從23.16GHz~25.37GHz,相位雜訊在1MHz的偏移量為-104dBc,輸出之訊號強度為-13.87dBm,消耗功率為21.72mW。
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/9315
其他識別: U0005-0111201216500700
Appears in Collections:電機工程學系所

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