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A Study of Carrier Mobility in the Strained Si-based Alloy Inversion Layer
|關鍵字:||應變;strain;遷移率;Split C-V量測;矽鍺;矽碳;mobility;Split C-V measurements;SiGe;SiC||出版社:||電機工程學系所||引用:||[1-1] 魏拯華, 李敏鴻和劉致為, 奈米電子學. 台大出版中心, 2006. [1-2] Ghani T, Armstrong M, Auth C, Bost M, Charvat P, Glass G, Hoffmann T, Johson K, Kenyon C, Thompson S, Bohr M, “A 90 nm high volume manufacturing logic technology featuring novel 45 nm gate length strained silicon CMOS transistors,” IEDM Tech. Dig., pp. 11.6.1–11.6.3. 2003 [1-3] M.H. Lee, S.T. Chang, S. Maikap, K.-W. Shen, W.-C. Wang, “Short channel effect improved strained-Si:C-source/drain PMOSFETs ,” Applied Surface Science, vol. 254, no. 19, pp. 6144-6146, 2008. [1-4] 運用應變矽通道工程技術突破平面型電晶體的極限, 半導體科技, no. 68, 2007. [1-5] C.-Y. Peng, F. Yuan, C.-Y. Yu, P.-S. Kuo, M. H. Lee, S. Maikap, C.-H. Hsu, and C. W. Liu, “Hole mobility enhancement of Si0.2Ge0.8 quantum well channel on Si,” Appl. Phys. Lett., vol. 90, no. 1, pp. 012114-1~3, 2007. [1-6] S. Maikap, M. H. Lee, S. T. Chang, and C. W. 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最後，我們研究成長於矽基板上之應變鍺通道的電洞遷移率。與研究鍺(110) PMOSFET於未應變與應變的次能帶結構及各種等效質量。我們以理論方式來研究PMOSFET於應變鍺(110)反轉層的等效質量與遷移率。計算上這裡考慮的應變條件主要成長於(110)矽基板上之鍺通道所引起的雙軸壓縮應變。此外，我們也考慮垂直等效電場所引起的量子侷限效應，進而擬合k.p方法所計算的次能帶結構的結果。我們計算在(110)矽基板上的應變鍺通道反轉層之電洞狀態密度等效質量(density of state effective mass, mc)、電導質量(conductivity mass, mσ)和量子化有效質量(quantization effective mass, mz)的影響。
MOSFETs formed from novel Si-based materials, such as silicon-carbon and silicon-germanium alloys, have the advantage of low cost and are simple to manufacture. Therefore, in this thesis we focus on carrier mobility in the inversion layer of MOSFETs using novel Si-based channel materials. The primary topic of this thesis is the theoretical calculation and experimental measurement of carrier mobility in a Si-based MOSFET inversion layer. We introduce three MOSFET channel materials: silicon-carbon, silicon-germanium alloy, and Ge (the upper limit of the silicon-germanium alloy with 100% germanium content), which show greater potential in comparison to strained Si MOSFET devices. We introduce strained silicon-carbon alloys and apply them to create a strained silicon-carbon channel NMOSFET. For PMOSFET devices, we introduce strained silicon-germanium alloys and Ge. Similarly, these two materials can be applied to create strained silicon-germanium and Ge channel PMOSFETs.
To investigate the characterization of silicon–carbon alloy materials for use in future strained Si MOSFETs, NMOSFETs using strained silicon–carbon alloy surface channels are reported in this work. Tensile-strained silicon-carbon layers with substitutional carbon content up to ~1% were epitaxially grown on (100) Si substrates by ultra-high vacuum chemical vapor deposition, using silane and methylsilane as the silicon and carbon sources, respectively. The NMOSFETs were fabricated using standard MOS processing with reduced thermal treatment in order to minimize the possibility of strain relaxation. A reciprocal space mapping method was used to analyze the strain distribution in the silicon–carbon alloy thin films on Si substrates. The election inversion layer mobilities of the Si1−xCx and Si control devices at room temperature are comparable. This is in contrast to the electron mobility enhancement observed in NMOSFETs fabricated using tensile-strained Si grown on relaxed SiGe layers. At low temperatures, the electron inversion layer mobility of Si1−xCx devices is lower than that of the Si controls, and appears to be affected by the charge, and possibly random alloy scattering.
We also study the hole mobility in the silicon-germanium alloy inversion layer. The hole mobility in the SiGe alloy inversion layer is calculated using the quantized k.p method and a Kubo-Greenwood mobility formula. The model parameters used in the calculations are calibrated by matching the measured low-field mobility of Si and Ge. We study alloy-limited mobility in the inversion layers of relaxed and biaxial strained SiGe on (100), (110) and (111) substrates. We also explore the impact of external mechanical uniaxial stress on the Si and Ge (100), (110), and (111) PMOSFET. We obtained piezoresistance coefficients of Si and Ge (100), (110), and (111) PMOSFETs with external mechanical uniaxial stress applied parallel and perpendicular to the channel direction.
Finally, we study the hole mobility in strained Ge layers grown on Si substrate. Sub-band structures and the effective mass of relaxed and strained Ge (110) PMOSFETs were investigated. The effective mass and mobility of the strained Ge (110) inversion layer in a PMOSFET are studied theoretically in this work. The strain condition considered in the calculations is the intrinsic strain resulting from growing the Ge layer on the (110) Si substrate. The quantum confinement effect resulting from the vertical effective electric field is incorporated into the k.p calculation. Various effective masses, such as the quantization effective mass, mz, density of states effective mass, mDOS, and conductivity mass, mC, as well as the hole mobility of a strained Ge (110) inversion layer for PMOS under substrate strain and various effective electric field strengths, are all investigated.
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