Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/93383
標題: 隋代佛教組織二十五眾、五眾的設置與內容
作者: 曾堯民
Yao-Min Zeng
關鍵字: 隋文帝;二十五眾;五眾;法應;六大德;Emperor Wen of Sui dynasty;Twenty-five Assemblies;Five Assemblies;Fa-yin;Six Monks of Great Virtue
Project: 興大歷史學報, Issue 27, Page(s) 1-28.
摘要: 
二十五眾、五眾是隋文帝設置的兩種佛教組織,設置時間在開皇十二年到十七年間。歷來學者認為二十五眾為弘法組織,有二十五眾主慧影、教讀經法主僧琨、第一摩訶衍匠僧粲;五眾為教育組織,有涅槃、大論、講論、講律、十地眾。
  本文透過重讀相關文獻,認為二十五眾應該是依戒、定、慧三學而設置,也就是有定學、慧學、戒學三種二十五眾,其中定學二十五眾的眾主應為法應;慧學二十五眾的眾主應為慧影,此外還包括教讀經法主的僧琨、第一摩訶衍匠的僧粲。
  五眾的設置時間有開皇十二年、十七年兩次,十二年有定業、涅槃、大論、講論、講律五眾。十七年敕補涅槃眾主與任命十地眾主,十地眾為新增。由於十二年已有五眾,增加了十地眾,表示原來的五眾中有一眾不再設置,如此方能維持五眾。十七年既然敕補涅槃眾,因此取消的不會是涅槃眾,應該是定業、大論、講論、講律四眾之一。但因記載的缺乏,無法確認哪一眾不再設置,但可推知十七年的五眾為涅槃、十地眾,加上定業、大論、講論、講律四眾中的三眾。
  在眾與寺院的關係中,以眾來說,同一眾同時未必僅有一位眾主,如大論眾主便有二位,但不會同住於一寺;以寺來說,眾主分居各寺,不論同不同眾,皆未見一寺二眾主的情況,即一寺一眾主。

Emperor Wen of the Sui Dynasty set up two kinds of Buddhist organizations - Twenty-five Assemblies and Five Assemblies during 592-597. Most scholars would say that Twenty-five Assemblies were institutes for propagating the teachings of the Buddha, where Hui-ying was the Head of Twenty-five Assemblies (ershiwuzhong zhu/二十五眾主), Seng-kun the Jiaodujing fazhu (教讀經法主) and Seng-can the Diyi moheyan jiang (第一摩訶衍匠), and that Five Assemblies represents five educational institutes, including Nie-pan (涅槃), Da-lun (大論), Jiang-lun (講論), Jiang- lü (講律), and Shi-di (十地).
  By reviewing the related literature in this article, I would argue that Twenty-five Assemblies should be sourced from three trainings (sanxue/三學): precepts, meditation and wisdom; namely there were three types of Twenty-five Assemblies, where Fa-yin shall be the Head of Twenty-five Assemblies for Ding-xue(定學), and Hui-ying for Hui-xue(慧學) in addition to Seng-kun, the Jiaodujing fazhu and Seng-can, the Diyi moheyan jiang.
  Five Assemblies were set up twice, in 592 and 597. They were Ding-ye (定業), Nie-pan, Da-lun, Jiang-lun, and Jiang-lü in 592. Emperor Wen designated a new Head for Nie-pan Assembly and set up a new assembly-Shi-di Assembly with an appointed head in 597. Since there existed five assemblies in 592 and Shi-di Assembly was founded in 597, one of the original Five Assemblies should have been abolished to keep the same amount of assemblies. Furthermore, the one that was no longer set should be any one of them-Ding-ye, Da-lun, Jiang-lun or Jiang-lü but not Nie-pan Assembly for sure because Emperor Wen just designated a new head in 597. However, due to the lack of sound documentation, it is not possible to confirm which assembly was eventually abolished, but only that Five Assemblies should be Nie-pan and Shi-di Assembly plus three of these four assemblies- Ding-ye, Da-lun, Jiang-lun, and Jiang-lü in 597.
  In view of the relations between the assembly and the monastery, for the part of the assembly, it is acceptable to have two Heads in an Assembly like Nie-pan Assembly, but they will not stay in the same monastery; for the part of the monastery, those Heads of Assembly have to stay at different monasteries regardless whether or not they belong to the same assembly. The fact that two Heads of Assembly stayed in the same monastery was never found, i.e. one monastery can only have one Head of Assembly.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/93383
ISSN: 1028-2009
Appears in Collections:第27期

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