Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/93586
標題: 孔孟之真情發用與張程陸王之以理御情
From Confucius and Mencius's Real Sentiments Utility to CHANG, CHENG, LU, and WANG's Principle-Driven Emotions
作者: 劉錦賢
Chin-Hsien Liu
關鍵字: 情感;真實;憤怒;快活;循理;Emotions;Real;Anger;Joyous;Follow the Natural Rules
出版社: 臺中市:國立中興大學中國文學系
Project: 興大中文學報, Volume 37, Page(s) 47-78.
摘要: 
孔子道大德盛,仁心感潤無方,其喜怒哀樂之發,真實無隱,自然中節。孟子之全幅生命亦是德性之體現,故其情感之發亦純真無偽,適切無過。二人皆能調理情感,使之為成德之資,而達乎情理交融之生命大諧和,即以此樂境為人生之理想。孔子以為內省不疚則無憂懼而有自得之樂,孟子以反身而誠為大樂,知二人之樂境始皆基於道德實踐。宋明儒以弘揚聖學為己任,以孔孟為取法之標準;其所關心者,在如何以理性駕御情氣,故對情氣之偏失有深刻之照察。在四情之中,怒與樂為宋明儒所特重。彼等視憤怒乃亟待克制之邪情,而本乎天理良知之樂境則是其積極追求之目標。止怒之方在平心以觀可怒對象之是非所在,而不激動情氣;致樂之方在體仁、循理而得心安,亦基於道德實踐。孔孟之聖功既就,喜怒哀樂之表現從容自然;宋明儒則隨時留意情氣偏雜之對治,是以一再講明義理以導正情氣之差失。至於生命最後歸止於活潑暢快、安定自在之樂境,宋明儒與孔孟則大體相同。

Confucius is known to have great morality and his kindness has touched and enriched people worldwide. His expressions on happiness, anger, sadness, and joy were real and unhidden, not hypocritical and yet always tallying with etiquettes. Mencius's whole life was also a reflection of moral conducts. Thus, Mencius also expressed his own emotions naturally, purely, and properly. Confucius and Mencius both were able to adjust their own emotions to solidify their own moralities and ultimately reach the harmonious integration of emotions and principles. The harmonious state was the ideal goal for life. Confucius was self-content with his introspection when he believed that there shall be no fear while doing self-examination and feeling not ashamed. Mencius thought the greatest happiness was finding sincerity and non-artifice during introspection. The happiness of the two masters both relied on the practices and realization of morality. Scholars in Song and Ming Dynasties devoted to developing and expanding the Confucianism and took Confucius and Mencius as the standard. All they cared lied in the manners to use rationality to drive emotions; therefore, they had profound awareness in the deviation of emotions. Among four different emotions, anger and joy were the most valued by scholars in Song and Ming Dynasties. They took anger as one devil emotion that was needed to be restrained as soon as possible and deemed happiness that complying with natural justice and good consciousness as an active goal. The manner to suppress anger was to calmly look at areas where the other person did wrongly without being irritated. The manner to reach happiness was to embody the spirit of benevolence and morality, follow the natural rules to achieve peace of mind, and carry forward the practices of morality. The great achievement of Confucius and Mencius was to express happiness, anger, sadness, joy calmly and easily. Scholars in Song and Ming Dynasties paid great attention to adjust the deviated emotions, so they always stressed the use of justice and principles to redress deviated emotions. As for the notion of ending life with lively, delight, tranquil and unrestricted happiness, scholars in Ming and Song Dynasties held similar view with Confucius and Mencius.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/93586
Appears in Collections:第37期

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