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標題: 孔孟之真情發用與張程陸王之以理御情
From Confucius and Mencius's Real Sentiments Utility to CHANG, CHENG, LU, and WANG's Principle-Driven Emotions
作者: 劉錦賢
Chin-Hsien Liu
關鍵字: 情感;真實;憤怒;快活;循理;Emotions;Real;Anger;Joyous;Follow the Natural Rules
出版社: 臺中市:國立中興大學中國文學系
Project: 興大中文學報, Volume 37, Page(s) 47-78.

Confucius is known to have great morality and his kindness has touched and enriched people worldwide. His expressions on happiness, anger, sadness, and joy were real and unhidden, not hypocritical and yet always tallying with etiquettes. Mencius's whole life was also a reflection of moral conducts. Thus, Mencius also expressed his own emotions naturally, purely, and properly. Confucius and Mencius both were able to adjust their own emotions to solidify their own moralities and ultimately reach the harmonious integration of emotions and principles. The harmonious state was the ideal goal for life. Confucius was self-content with his introspection when he believed that there shall be no fear while doing self-examination and feeling not ashamed. Mencius thought the greatest happiness was finding sincerity and non-artifice during introspection. The happiness of the two masters both relied on the practices and realization of morality. Scholars in Song and Ming Dynasties devoted to developing and expanding the Confucianism and took Confucius and Mencius as the standard. All they cared lied in the manners to use rationality to drive emotions; therefore, they had profound awareness in the deviation of emotions. Among four different emotions, anger and joy were the most valued by scholars in Song and Ming Dynasties. They took anger as one devil emotion that was needed to be restrained as soon as possible and deemed happiness that complying with natural justice and good consciousness as an active goal. The manner to suppress anger was to calmly look at areas where the other person did wrongly without being irritated. The manner to reach happiness was to embody the spirit of benevolence and morality, follow the natural rules to achieve peace of mind, and carry forward the practices of morality. The great achievement of Confucius and Mencius was to express happiness, anger, sadness, joy calmly and easily. Scholars in Song and Ming Dynasties paid great attention to adjust the deviated emotions, so they always stressed the use of justice and principles to redress deviated emotions. As for the notion of ending life with lively, delight, tranquil and unrestricted happiness, scholars in Ming and Song Dynasties held similar view with Confucius and Mencius.
Appears in Collections:第37期

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