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標題: Turning Tender Petals into Sharp Protruding Thorns: Sexual Politics in Nawal El Saadawi's Two Women in One and The Circling Song
作者: Chia-Ling She
關鍵字: 女性割陰;伊斯蘭教;民族女性主義;納瓦勒.薩達維;父權;female genital cutting;Islam;nationalist-feminism;Nawal El Saadawi;patriarchy
Project: Intergrams, Volume 16, Issue 2, Page(s) 1-29.
本文檢視埃及民族主義女性主義者納瓦勒.薩達維(Nawal El Saadawi, 1931-)以書寫做為創構國家認同的方式,她的書寫位置與男性民族主義者既合作又抗拒。《雙面女郎》(Two Women in One, 1985)和《圓圈之歌》(The Circling Song, 1989)論及在上世紀五十至七十年代間,女性被國家用來標舉文化疆界的角色,兩部小說皆論及埃及女性的生物、文化複製和象徵性的角色。而兩部小說的對照,可以看出薩達維的中產階級傾向。從某種程度來說,身為精神科醫生,納瓦勒.薩達維處理女性榮譽和女性割陰的議題,使之與西方女性主義和人權議題產生複雜關係。割陰和女性貞潔實有分不開的關係,而西方精神分析一直以來都扮演著西方霸權注視的角色。薩達維的性/別政治攪擾西方性/別建構理論、精神分析和基進女性主義,而陽具妒羨的理論則被用來說明女性割陰的多重脈絡。她對西方論述的挪移一方面擾動挑戰東西方文化的界線,一方面則呼籲女性割陰必須被置放到特定歷史和文化脈絡。納瓦勒.薩達維書寫時刻正當上世紀七十年代後回教基本教義派逐漸熾烈之時,回歸傳統的父權制甚囂塵上,本文一方面討論納瓦勒.薩達維攪動西方女性主義的多元混雜論述形構,成為她抵抗割陰習俗的論述的一部分,一方面指出回教基本教義派之家庭回歸並非傳統,而是東西方文化混雜的結果。另一方面,本文亦指出,納瓦勒.薩達維的論述架構隱含生物決定論抑或社會二元建構論的含混矛盾,她的本質主義是她女人性/別的流動越界揮之不去的假設和限制。

This paper examines the writing by Egyptian nationalist-feminist writer Nawal El Saadawi (1931-) as ways to create national identities, and also to resist the forms and positions of patriarchy adopted by the newly independent nation. Two Women in One (1985) and The Circling Song (1989) take up Egyptian women's biological, culturereproducing and symbolic roles that the Egyptian nationalists employ to pursue identities as national boundary markers between the 1950s and 1970s. Facing Islamic fundamentalism as the increasingly dominant voice that demanded the return to traditional values after the 1970s, El Saadawi demonstrated that Islamic feminism is not a homogeneous term and that the Islamist call for the return to home she opposed is not traditional but the result of complex cultural amalgamations. To tackle Egyptian women's issues on feminine honor and female genital cutting, El Saadawi's FGC discourse, which has multiple origins, both engages with and troubles Western feminist theories, including gender construction, radical feminism and psychoanalysis, and is imbued with the notion of women's rights. She complicates penis-envy theory in feminist sexuality theory to explain the health and sexual issues on FGC, a custom to ensure virginity, in her writing. Exhibiting cultural inter-mixture in her approaches, El Saadawi both troubles the Eastern and Western cultural boundaries and calls for cultural and historical particularities in treating the FGC discourse. Meanwhile, this paper also analyzes the drawback in El Saadawi's writing for not being clear about whether female sexuality is a result of biological determinism or cultural dichotomizing effect in her conceptual framework. The juxtaposition of the two novels demonstrates how her middle-class position has impacts on her sexual politics.
Appears in Collections:第16卷 第02期

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