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Electrical and optical properties of polymer solar cell with metal nanostructures
|關鍵字:||聚合物有機太陽能電池;Polymer solar cells;奈米金網;表面電漿共振;電場退火;鋁穿刺;Gold nanomesh;surface plasmon resonance;electrical annealing;Al penetration||出版社:||電機工程學系所||引用:||Chapter 1 – Reference  L.West,http://environment.about.com/od/globalwarming/a/greenhouse.htm(2012).  D. M. Chapin, C. S. Fuller, and G. L. Pearson, "A New Silicon p‐n Junction Photocell for Converting Solar Radiation into Electrical Power," J. Appl. Phys., vol. 25, pp. 676-677, 1964.  M. A. Green, "Crystalline Silicon Photovoltaic Cells," Adv. Mater., vol. 13, pp. 1019-1022, 2001.  M. A. Green, "Recent developments in photovoltaics," Sol. Energy, vol. 76, pp. 3-8, 2004.  A. Goetzberger, C. Hebling, and H. W. Schock "Photovoltaic materials, history, status and outlook," Mater. Sci. Eng, vol. 40, pp. 1-46, 2003.  R. M. Swanson, "A Vision for Crystalline Silicon Photovoltaics," Prog. Photovoltaics, vol. 14, pp. 443-453, 2006.  H. Hoppe and N. S. Sariciftci, "Organic solar cells: An overview " J. Mater. 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在本篇論文中，於透明導電玻璃(ITO)製程奈米金網技術可提升聚合物有機太陽能電池光電流，且藉由調變奈米金點的厚度，探討奈米金網所引發的表面電漿共振(SPR)與電漿空穴所造成之影響。及調變不同的反向偏壓使太陽能電池電場退火，探討電場退火對太陽能電池特性之影響。首先將奈米金網室溫製程於透明導電玻璃(ITO)。其製程方式將金薄膜蒸鍍於聚合物奈米球上層，其後使用剝離製程將緊密排列聚合物奈米球(直徑~50 nm; 密度~1010/cm2)，使其圖案化形成奈米金網。運用此技術，聚合物有機太陽能電池之短路電流密度自7.02 mA/cm2提升到14.2 mA/cm2，使用光電轉換效率 分析儀量測轉換效率可自1.9%提升到3.2%。運用穿透反射吸收光譜探討表面離子誘發於波長580 nm 具有誘發特性以增加光電流。有機高分子太陽能電池元件的表面電漿共振，是使用紫外光可見光光譜儀探討分析其光學特性，及使用光電轉換效率儀器(IPCE)量測探討分析其電學特性。
實驗結果顯示，採用奈米金網的太陽能電池，其吸收光譜中可明顯地觀察到峰值位置為580 nm，可能為表面電漿共振之影響。且太陽能電池的短路電流及轉換效率，分別由7.02 mA/cm2 提升到 14.2 mA/cm2，及由1.9%提升至3.2%。在光電轉換效率儀器(IPCE)所量測的圖譜中，可明顯地觀察到約在580 nm峰值位置有所提升，與前述的吸收光譜結果相符。由結果可得知，表面電漿共振所引發的影響於580 nm峰值位置上，進而提升太陽能電池的光電流與轉換效率。在調變奈米金點的厚度方面，由於奈米金點的厚度增加，使得奈米金點直徑也隨之增加，進而造成局部的表面電漿共振波長產生紅位移，峰值位置由原本的532nm偏移到611nm。
在電場退火的實驗中，使用P3HT:PCBM製作異質接面太陽能電池，施加逆向偏壓進行電場退火。實驗結果顯示，未使用電退火的太陽能電池，其短路電流、填充因子、開路電壓及轉換效率，分別為7.77 mA/cm2、53%、0.63 V及2.37%。而在經過電壓為 -6V 電退火的太陽能電池，其轉換效率小幅提升至為2.59%。藉由電退火改善太陽能電池的聚合物鍊取向，增加電荷的遷移率，進而提高了效率。使用X射線光電子能譜(XPS)於高電場下分析金屬-有機層P3HT：PCBM之界面。於電場退火後其消耗能量為0.366 mJ/cm2，於XPS的分析鋁與碳的原子濃度中得知鋁金屬會深入主動層形成鋁穿刺以增加金屬接觸面積以減少、改善金屬接面電阻值。
Polymer solar cells (PSCs) have attracted great interest as potential alternatives for inorganic-based solar cells due to their possibility of low-cost fabrication, light-weight, simple process, and mechanical flexibility. Efficiency of the polymer solar cell can be improved by various methods. The incorporation of metal nanostructures to increase the photocurrent by the presence of surface plasmon and also another possible way to improve the device is electrical annealing through the electrode.
In this thesis, a gold (Au) nanomesh layer was manufactured on an ITO-coated glass substrate at room temperature. The Au nanomesh was used to induce surface plasmon resonance (SPR) to enhance the photocurrent of a polymer solar cell. The Au nanomesh was manufactured by lift-off process on closely packed PS nanospheres (diameter ~50 nm; density ~1010/cm2). The PS nanospheres were fabricated by modified block copolymer nano-patterning on ITO. A transmittance–reflection– absorbance spectrum was used to explore the induced surface plasmon. An extinction peak was observed at ~580 nm indicate the possibility of Au nanomesh induced surface plasmon resonance. The short-circuit current density of the polymer solar cell was enhanced from 7.02 to 14.2 mA/cm2 by the addition of Au nanomesh. Consequently, the power conversion efficiency enhanced from 1.9% to 3.2%. By the normalized input photon-to-current conversion efficiency (IPCE) measurement, enhanced photocurrent conversion efficiency at approximately 580 nm was observed that coincided with the extinction spectrum, indicating that the surface plasmon enhanced the photocurrent.
Moreover, we deposit different thickness of gold nanodot to examined the optical properties of Au nanodots, and analyze the effect of surface plasmon and plasmonic nano cavities. While the deposition of gold thickness increases, the diameter of the gold nanodot also increases. The localized surface plasmon resonance peak is red shifted from 534 nm to 611 nm when the diameter of the Au nanodot increased. The photoactive layer poly(3-hexylthiophene) : 6,6-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester film and 300 nm a-Si with Au nanodots have a higher absorbance as compared to the without Au nanodots. Scattered light efficiently couple the incident light into waveguide mode to the a-Si film dramatically increasing the optical path and absorption of the light inside the film. Combine effect of local field enhancement from LSP and guided modes are the reason for the strong enhancement in higher wavelength.
Also, we demonstrated the effect of electrical annealing treatment under different reverse bias on the performance of bulk heterojunction photovoltaic cells based on P3HT:PCBM. After electrical annealing at -6 V, the polymer solar cell exhibits an 7.77 mA/cm2 short circuit current density, an 0.53 fill factor, and an 0.63 V open circuit Voltage. A corresponding efficiency of 2.59 % was achieved. In comparison, solar cell without electrical annealing exhibits power conversion efficiency of 2.37 %. This enhanced efficiency is attributed to the modified orientation of the polymer chains inside the photoactive layer that increases the mobility of charge carriers. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) was used to investigate the metal-organic interfaces of a P3HT:PCBM bulk-heterojunction (BHJ) organic solar cell under a high electrical field. This high electrical field was built by applying reverse bias to the solar cell. In addition, after electrical annealing, the Al cathode will penetrate further into the active layer increases the contact area and reduces the contact resistance. This Al penetration was confirmed by the depth profile of atomic concentration in the X-ray photoemission spectroscopy. In addition, the reverse current density was quite low, consumed only a small amount of energy (0.36 mJ/cm2) during stressing. The intermixing and atomic concentration gradient of Al and C shown by an XPS depth profile confirmed the penetration of Al into the polymer layer under a large electrical field, in which improved the contact properties.
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