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Self-Balancing and Motion Control of a Ball-Riding Robot
|關鍵字:||騎球型機器人;Ball-riding robot;線性二次調整;倒逆步控制;順滑模式控制;Linear Quadratic Regulation;Backstepping control;Sliding-mode control||出版社:||電機工程學系所||引用:|| T. B. Lauwers, G. A. Kantor, and R. L. Hollis, “A dynamical stable single-wheeled mobile robot with inverse mouse-ball drive,” Proceedings of the IEEE International Conference on Robotics and Automation, Orlando, USA, pp. 2884-2889, 2006.  M. Kumagai, T. Ochiai, “Development of a Robot Balancing on a Ball” in Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Contr. Autom. And Systems, pp. 433-438, 2008.  M. Kumagai and T. Ochiai, “Development of a Robot Balancing on a Ball- Application of passive motion transportation,” in Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Robot. And Autom., pp. 4106-4111, 2009.  http://rezero.ethz.ch/project_en.html (2011-07).  H. C. Chan, System Design, Modeling and Control of a Ball Robot Driven by Three Omnidirectional Wheels, Master thesis, Department of Electrical Engineering, National Chung-Hsing University, 2011.  C. W. Liao, C. C. Tsai, Y. Y. Li, C. K. Chan, “Dynamic modeling and sliding-mode control of a ball robot with inverse mouse-ball drive,” Proceedings of SICE 2008, Tokyo, Japan, pp. 2951-2955, 2008.  R. Hollis, “Ballbots,” Scientific American Magazine, pp. 72-77, Oct. 2006.  J. C. Lo and Y. H. Kuo, “Decoupled fuzzy sliding-mode control,” IEEE Transactions on Fuzzy Systems, vol. 6, no. 3, pp. 426-435, 1998.  C. M. Lin and Y. J. Mon. “Decoupling control by hierarchical fuzzy sliding-mode controller,” IEEE Transactions on Control Systems Technology, vol. 13, no. 4, pp. 593-598, 2005.  W. Wang, X. D. Liu, and J. Q. Yi, “Structure design of two types of sliding-mode controllers for a class of under-actuated mechanical systems,” IET Proceeding of Control Theory and Applications, vol. 1, no. 1, pp. 163-172, 2007.  A. Weiss, R. G. Langlois, and M. J. D. Hayes, “The Effects of Dual Row Omnidirectional Wheels on the Kinematics of the Atlas Spherical Motion Platform,” Mechanism and Machine Theory, vol. 44, pp. 349-358, 2009.  U. Nagarajan and A. Mampetta, G. A. Kantor and R. L. Hollis, “State Transition, Balancing, Station Keeping, and Yaw Control for a Dynamically Stable Single Spherical Wheel Mobile Robot” in Proc.IEEE Int. Conf. Robot. And Autom., pp. 998-1003, 2009.  U. Nagarajan, G. A. Kantor and R. L. Hollis, “Trajectory Planning and Control of an Underactuated Dynamically Stable Single Spherical Wheeled Mobile Robot” in Proc. IEEE Int. Conf. Robot. And Autom., pp. 3743-3748, 2009.  H. K. Khalil, Nonlinear systems, 3rd Ed., Prentice Hall, 2002.  D. Tlalolini, C. Chevallereau, and Y. Aoustin, “Comparison of different gaits with rotation of the feet for a planar biped,” Robotics and Autonomous Systems, vol. 51, pp. 81-99, 2005.||摘要:||
本論文的研究目的是針對一以三個無間隙全方位輪進行驅動之騎球型機器人，發展線性二次調整(LQR)和倒逆步順滑模式控制(backstepping sliding-mode control)等兩控制方法，用以達成原地平衡，位置控制以及軌跡追蹤。文中詳細地描述該騎球型機器人的新型夾球機構、感測電路與方位推算法、動態解耦數學模型以及控制系統架構。在運動控制器方面，首先利用線性化模型，提出一狀態迴授控制策略，並線性二次調整法設計其控制參數，用以達成原地平衡與位置控制。為達成時變軌跡追蹤控制的目標，該機器人的非線性模型被採用，結合倒逆步與順滑模式控制法，發展一新式的合計階層式順滑模式控制。許多電腦模擬被用來檢證所提出之兩運動控制法則的可行性與有效性。實驗數據可確認該騎球型機器人系統可達到預期控制性能之原地平衡與平台運動控制目標。
This thesis presents methodologies and techniques for linear quadratic regulation (LQR) and backstepping sliding-mode motion control of a ball-riding robot driven by three omnidirectional wheels, in order to accomplish station keeping, position control and trajectory tracking. In comparison with the previous ball-riding robot, this thesis pays significant efforts on constructing a new driving mechanism, sensing and driving circuits, and establishing a dead-reckoning method and decoupling dynamic models for control purposes. Based on the linearized models of the robot, two LQR controllers are synthesized to achieve station keeping and point stabilization. To achieve time-varying trajectory tracking, the nonlinear models of the robot are employed to synthesize two backstepping sliding-mode controllers so as to achieve station keeping, point stabilization and trajectory tracking. The performance and effectiveness of two types of proposed controllers are exemplified by conducting several computer simulations on station keeping, point stabilization and trajectory tracking. Through experimental results, both proposed controllers together with the built ball-riding robot are shown capable of achieving station keeping and point stabilization.
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