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標題: 論石黑一雄《我輩孤雛》之國與家
Nation and Home in Kazuo Ishiguro''s When We Were Orphans
作者: 陳怡欣
Yi-Hsin Chen
關鍵字: 歷史;國家;鄉愁;家;歸屬;History;Nation;Nostalgia;Home;Belonging
引用: Anderson, Benedict. Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origin and Spread of Nationalism. Verso, 2006. Print. Bigsby, Christopher. “In Conversation with Kazuo Ishiguro.” Conversations with Kazuo Ishiguro, edited by Brian W. Shaffer, and Cynthia F. Wong, UP of Mississippi, 2008, pp. 15-26. Chubb, Robin. “Past and Future on Shanghai’s Famous Bund.” Spacing Toronto, Cresswell, Tim. Place: A Short Introduction. Blackwell, 2004. ---. In Pace/Out of Place: Geography, Ideology, and Transgression. U of Minnesota P, 1996. Print. De Certeau, Michel , Luce Giard, Pierre Mayol, and Timothy J. Tomasik. The Practice of Everyday Life: Volume 2. U of Minnesota P, 1998. Print. Drag, Wojciech. Revisiting Loss: Memory, Trauma and Nostalgia in the Novels of Kazuo Ishiguro. Cambridge Scholars Publishing, 2014. Print. Ishiguro, Kazuo. When We Were Orphans. Vintage, 2000. Print. ---. A Pale View of Hills. Faber and Faber, 1982. Print. ---. An Artist of the Floating World. Faber and Faber, 1986. Print. ---. The Remains of the Day. Vintage, 1988. Print. ---. The Unconsoled. Vintage, 1995. Print. ---. Never Let Me Go. Faber and Faber, 2005. Print. ---. Nocturnes: Five Stories of Music and Nightfall. Faber and Faber, 2009. Print. ---. The Buried Giant. Random House, 2015. Print. Johnstone, William C. “International Relations: The Status of Foreign Concessions and Settlements in the Treaty Ports of China.” The American Political Science Review, vol. 31, no. 5, 1937, pp. 942–948. JSTOR, Lewis, Barry. Kazuo Ishiguro. Manchester UP, 2006. Print. Leys, Ruth. Trauma: A Genealogy. U of Chicago P, 2000. Print. Lin-Le. Ti-Ping Tien-Kwoh The History of the Ti-Ping Revolution (Volume II). Project Gutenberg EBook, 2012. Project Gutenberg EBook, Lockwood, William W. “The International Settlement at Shanghai, 1924-34.” The American Political Science Review, vol. 28, no. 6, 1934, pp. 1030–1046. JSTOR, Matthews, Sean, and Sebastian Groes. Kazuo Ishiguro: Contemporary Crtical Perspectives. Continuum, 2009. Print. Orchard, John E. “Shanghai.” Geographical Review, vol. 26, no. 1, 1936, pp. 1–31. JSTOR, Prieto, Eric. Literature, Geography, and the Postmodern Poetics of Place. Palgrave Macmillan, 2013. Springer Link, Shaffer, Brian W. “An Interview with Kazuo Ishiguro.” Conversations with Kazuo Ishiguro, edited by Brian W. Shaffer, and Cynthia F. Wong, UP of Mississippi, 2008, pp. 161-173. Sedikides, Constantine, et al. “Nostalgia: Past, Present, and Future.” Current Directions in Psychological Science, vol. 17, no. 5, 2008, pp. 304–307. JSTOR, The Oxford English Dictionary. Prepared by J. A. Simpson and E. S. C. Weiner, 2nd ed., Vol. VII, Clarendon Press, 1989. Print. ---. Prepared by J. A. Simpson and E. S. C. Weiner, 2nd ed., Vol. X, Clarendon Press, 1989. Print. “Treaties and Documents Concerning Opium.” The American Journal of International Law, vol. 3, no. 3, 1909, pp. 253–275. JSTOR, Treaty of Nanjing (Nanking), 1842. USC U.S.-China Institute. Teo, Yugin. Kazuo Ishiguro and Memory. Palgrave Macmillan, 2014. Print. Wright, David Cutis. The History of China. 2nd ed., Greenwood, 2011. ABC-CLIO/Greenwood,
《我輩孤雛》為日裔英籍作家石黑一雄的第五本小說,《我輩孤雛》將場景設定在倫敦與上海,這兩個截然不同的城市,代表著兩種不同文化,這兩種文化影響個人對國與家的歸屬感。本論文討論國與家對個人的影響。第一章著墨於歷史層面,分析上海租界區如何形成以及鴉片貿易對小說中角色所帶來的衝擊,此章節引用班納迪克.安德森 (Benedict Anderson)國族為個體想像的概念,去探討民族認同之形成。第二章引用提姆.克瑞茲威爾(Tim Cresswell)的地方與錯置概念來詮釋鄉愁和離散,因離散與鄉愁源於個人對情境的格格不入。第三章延伸克瑞茲威爾文化地理學概念去闡述家的三個面向,家為心靈僻護所、棲息處及記憶的歸屬。就此三個面向探討家如何形塑個人身份與歸屬。

When We Were Orphans is Japanese British writer Kazuo Ishiguro’s fifth novel. The novel, set in London and Shanghai, addressed the impact of different cultures on the fictional characters’ sense of belonging. This thesis examines the twin concepts of home and nation in When We Were Orphans. Chapter One attends to the historical background of the International Settlement in Shanghai and the impact of opium trade on individuals. This chapter adopts Benedict Anderson’s idea that communities are imagined to illustrate how national identity is formed in the novel. Chapter Two adopts Tim Cresswell’s theory of cultural geography to explore the connection between nostalgia and displacement. Displacement occurs because one places oneself in a wrong place or encounters predicament. Chapter Three also adopts Tim Cresswell’s theory to examine home in three different standpoints: home as a sanctuary, home as a dwelling, and a depository of memories. It analyzes how the fictional characters situate themselves at home through these three different angles.
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