Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/96042
標題: Effects of rice varieties and substitute ratio on the quality of steamed bread
稻米品種及取代比例對饅頭品質之影響
作者: Chun-Jung Chen
陳春容
關鍵字: 米種;饅頭;感官品評;rice varieties;steamed bread;food sensory evaluation
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摘要: 
稻米蛋白質為優質植物性蛋白質,澱粉則提供足夠飽足感,稻米除可當主食外,亦可磨成米穀粉製成糕點,一般大眾除以白米飯當主食外,饅頭亦為消費者高接受度及中國發酵麵食代表產品,可當主食或點心,為國人普遍消費選擇,本研究添加不同米種及取代比例,以白米(稉9號,WR9)、白米(秈10號,WR10)、糙米(稉9號,BR9)、糙米(秈10號,BR10)及紫米(PR)及不同取代比例(20%、30%、40%),以米漿水型態,攪拌製作米穀饅頭,並以白饅頭(100%麵粉)作為對照組,進行一般成分、質地分析及感官評估之探討。研究結果顯示,稻米品種及取代比例在外觀上,白米饅頭、糙米饅頭、紫米饅頭隨著取代比例增加,相對麵粉添加量較少,麵筋(gluten)含量降低,麵糰無法形成良好網狀結構支撐,進而影響米饅頭膨發性,其產品體積造成米饅頭外形由挺立趨於扁塌,高度明顯降低。色澤方面,米穀取代比例越多,其顏色越深,PR饅頭於紅色度分析呈色較紅,與紫米添加量呈正相關,紫米顯著高於白米饅頭及糙米饅頭,紫色色澤顯著影響,於消費者喜好性色澤接受度得分較高,與白饅頭(Control無顯著差異)。質地分析結果顯示,隨著米穀添加比例增多,其硬度、膠性度、咀嚼度及恢復度有增加趨勢,20%WR9饅頭在硬度、彈性、凝聚性方面有較佳結果,性狀與白饅頭(control)相似。在硬度方面,以秈米>稉米>紫米,秈米較差可能原因為直鏈澱粉含量導致。米穀取代比例與硬度成正相關,高米穀取代比例,影響饅頭發酵及蒸製完體積膨發,造成饅頭組織緊密,硬度提高情形,可能原因為米穀饅頭麵筋網狀結構較對照組差,因而影響麵糰延展性及保氣性,導致饅頭比容積小,其硬度相對增加。
消費者感官評估整體喜好方面,接受度由高至低依序為20%PR饅頭(4.03)> 白饅頭(Control)(3.91)>20%WR9饅頭(3.86)> 30%WR9饅頭(3.86)>20%BR9饅頭(3.40)> 30%BR9饅頭(3.17),隨米穀取代比例越多,在香氣及餘味方面,消費者接受度皆較高, PR饅頭顯著高於白饅頭(control)、WR饅頭、BR饅頭,BR饅頭則得分較低,建議未來糙米饅頭研發,可以添加適當比例紫米,增加消費者香氣及餘味喜好性;BR饅頭於口感及彈性得分較低,推測原因為隨添加比例增加,纖維含量及其他物質,影響麵筋結構,體積較WR饅頭小,而影響口感,結果與質地分析之硬度及彈性相符。整體而言,30%取代比例之WR9饅頭與市售白饅頭性質相似,以適當取代比例及製作流程,饅頭整體品質較佳;本研究結果,期望藉由米穀添加,進而提升稻米運用,推廣國產米麵麵食加工產品普及,在質地、口感、香氣方面,開發消費者均能接受範疇,提供更多元選擇,是具開發潛力產品。

Rice has high-quality plant protein, and its starch can provide satiety. It is not only a staple food, but also can be ground into rice powder for making pastry. The steamed bread is one of recognized China's fermented pasta which usually made with flour. In this study, using white rice (Japonica 9, WR9), white rice (indica 10, WR10), brown rice (japonica 9, BR9), brown rice (indica 10, BR10) and purple rice (PR) with different substitutions of flour (20%, 30%, 40%) to make steamed bread and do the general composition, texture analysis and sensory analysis for comparing with the control group (100% flour). The results showed that the proportion of substitution increase, the content of gluten decrease. So the dough can't form a good network structure to support, and thus affect the shape of rice steamed bread tend to flat collapse, and obviously reduction in height.
The color results showed that the more the proportion of rice substitution, the more darkness color of steamed bread product. The a value of PR group is higher, which was positively correlated with the adding amount of purple rice. In the sensory evaluation, PR group was significantly higher than rice flour and brown rice bread, and had no significant difference with control group. The texture analysis results showed that the hardness, gelatinity, chewiness and recovery were increasing with the increase of the proportion of rice flour, especially, 20% WR9 had better effects on hardness, springiness and cohesiveness which was similar to the control group. In terms of hardness, indica rice is the hardest followed by japonica rice and purple rice; the reason might related to the amylose content. The ratio of rice substitution is positively correlated to the hardness. Due to the ratio of the high substitution would affect the fermentation of the steamed bread, resulting in the tight tissue and let the hardness increase. It is that the gluten grain structure is worse than the control group, thus affecting the ductility and gas keeping ability of the dough, resulting in the steamed bread product had a small volume and hard texture.
In the sensory evaluation of steamed bread, the acceptability score in the decending order was 20% PR (4.03), control (3.91), 20% WR9 (3.86), 30% WR9 (3.86), 20% BR9 (3.40), and 30% BR9 (3.17). In the term of aroma and after taste, consumer acceptance were higher, PR bread was significantly higher than control, and WR, BR and BR bread was the lowest. It is recommended that the future development of brown rice steamed bread can add the appropriate proportion of purple rice to increase consumer aroma and aftertaste preferences. BR bread in the taste and flexibility score was lower presumably because the increase in the proportion, and its fiber content and other substances affecting the gluten structure. The volume was smaller than WR group and affect the taste. The result was same as the texture analysis of the hardness and springiness. Overall, the 30% substitution ratio of WR9 was more likely the commercial product. So the results of this study proved that the rice flour indeed can use on the steamed bread making. If we use rice flour in an appropriate proportion, it not only develop a new application of rice, but also provide consumer a new choice.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/96042
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