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標題: Effect of enzyme-assisted extraction in combination of ultrasound treatment on the physicochemical properties of mucilage from the fronds of Asplenium australasicum (J. Sm.) Hook
作者: Chia-Fang Chiang
關鍵字: 酵素輔助萃取;超音波輔助萃取;黏質;Enzyme-assisted extraction;Ultrasound-assisted extraction;Mucilage
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酵素輔助萃取具有環境友善、反應條件溫和等優點;而超音波具有高頻率、穿透力強的特色,兩者皆被認為是創新、環保的萃取技術。因此本研究首先以木聚醣酶 (xylanase)、葡聚醣酶 (glucnase) 及結合此兩種酵素來進行南洋山蘇 (Asplenium australasicum) 黏質的萃取,後續搭配超音波處理,預探討酵素輔助萃取及結合超音波處理對黏質理化特性的影響,包含基本組成、單糖組成、多醣官能基、分子量分布、固有黏度、流變特性、保水力、保油力及葡萄糖透析延遲效果。
研究結果指出,酵素輔助萃取及超音波處理可使黏質產率顯著提升 (由3.64%提高至6.04~7.47%),掃描式電子顯微鏡分析可發現,木聚醣酶及葡聚醣酶可侵蝕山蘇葉結構,促使黏質釋出因而提高萃取率,特別是搭配超音波處理的組別。在FT-IR圖譜中,鑑定多醣所含主要基團的指紋區圖譜與控制組沒有顯著差異,說明酵素及超音波處理不會去破壞多醣結構。由單糖組成可知,酵素輔助萃取黏質之酸性糖與中性糖比例約為3:17,其中半乳糖醛酸約為葡萄糖醛酸之4~5倍;中性糖以半乳糖、葡萄糖及岩藻糖居多。相較於控制組,酵素輔助萃取黏質之半乳糖醛酸及葡萄糖含量顯著提升,推測此黏質組成的改變及多醣支鏈程度的複雜化,使得黏質之固有黏度及葡萄糖透析延遲指數下降。酵素輔助萃取黏質具有較高的分子量,但酵素結合超音波輔助萃取黏質之多醣支鏈受超音波作用而降解,進而降低分子量大小且提高固有黏度。進一步研究山蘇黏質之流變特性,穩剪切試驗結果顯示,山蘇黏質溶液屬於剪稀性之非牛頓流體;動態頻率掃描結果顯示,隨黏質濃度增加,G'及G'亦隨之上升;在配製濃度6%時,G'恆大於G'呈現膠體結構特性,然而經過超音波處理後G'及G'皆下降,說明了超音波處理會降低黏質之凝膠性。黏質之保水力在經過酵素輔助萃取後稍微下降,經過超音波處理後會上升;而保油力方面則沒有顯著差異,不過相較於一般膳食纖維,南洋山蘇黏質仍顯示出良好的保水、保油力。

Enzyme-assisted extraction (EAE) possess the advantages of being environmentally friendly and easily operated owing to relatively mild reaction conditions while ultrasound-assisted extraction (UAE) owns high frequency and strong penetration that both of EAE and UAE are considered to be the innovative and green extraction technology. Therefore, in this study, mucilage from Aspenlenium australasicum was first extracted by xylanase, glucanase and a combination of these two enzymes, followed by ultrasound treatment. The effects of enzyme and ultrasound treatment on the physicochemical properties of the mucilage were investigated including basic composition, monosaccharide composition, polysaccharide functional groups, molecular weight distribution, intrinsic viscosity, rheological properties, water and oil holding capacity, and glucose dialysis retardation index.
It was observed that compared to the control, the yield of mucilage increased significantly by EAE and UAE (from 3.64% to 6.04~7.47%). SEM results showed that enzymes can erode the raw material which contributed to the higher yield of mucilage, especially in assisted with ultrasound. The FT-IR fingerprint did not change pronouncedly due to the action of the enzymes and ultrasound, which meant they wouldn't destroy polysaccharide structure. In monosaccharide composition, the ratio of uronic acid to neutral sugar is about 3:17, which galacturonic acid is approximately 4~5 times that of glucuronic acid while galactose, glucose and fucose were primary neutral sugar. Compared with the control group, the content of galacturonic acid and glucose increased significantly after EAE. It could be the change of monosaccharide composition and the complexity of polysaccharide branching that significantly reduced the intrinsic viscosity and the glucose dialysis retardation index of the mucilage. EAE mucilage possessed higher molecular weight, but after UAE, the polysaccharide branches were degraded by ultrasound, which in turn reduced the molecular weight and increased the intrinsic viscosity. Further studies on rheological properties found that in steady shear test, mucilage from Aspenlenium australasicum was non-Newtonian fluid with shear thinning property while frequency sweep showed that G' and G' increased with increasing concentration, and G' was higher than G' (gel-like) in the concentration of 6%. However, both G' and G' decreased after UAE, indicating that ultrasound treatment would reduce gelling capacity of the mucilage. The water holding capacity of the EAE mucilage was slightly lower than the control but increased after UAE, while there was no significant difference in oil holding capacity. As compared to other dietary fibers, the mucilage from Aspenlenium australasicum still showed good water and oil holding capacity.
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