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標題: 以微鑽孔技術檢測混凝土強度之研究
Study of small drilling technique for evaluation of concrete strength
作者: Chi-Teng Hsueh
關鍵字: 微鑽孔技術;混凝土強度;貫入法;水泥砂漿;電鑽;鑽孔;small drilling technique;concrete strength;penetration method;Cement mortar;electric drill;drill
引用: 【1】 ASTM C 805 (1992), 'Standard Test Method for Rebound Number of Hardened Concrete,' Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol. 04.02. 【2】 ASTM C 803 (1992), 'Standard Test Method for Penetration Resistance of Hardened Concrete,' Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol. 04.02. 【3】 ASTM C 1150 (1992), 'Standard Test Method for the Break-Off Number of Concrete,' Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol. 04.02. 【4】 ASTM C 900 (1999), 'Standard Test Method for Pullout Strength of Hardened Concrete,' Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol. 04.02. 【5】 BSI, 1992, 'Recommendations for the Assessment of Concrete Strength by Near-to-Surface Tests,' BS 1881, Part 207, British Standards Institution. 【6】 ASTM C 597 (1992), 'Standard Test Method for Pulse Velocity Through Concrete,' Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol. 04.02. 【7】 V.R. Sturrup, F.J. Vecchio and H. Caratin, 'Pulse Velocity as a Measure of Concrete Compressive Strength', In Situ/Nondestructive Testing of Concrete, ACI SP-82, 1984; pp. 201-227 【8】 Bungey, J.H., 'Testing of Concrete in Structures,' Surrey University Press, Glasgow, 1982, pp. 207 【9】 Malhotra, V.M., 'Testing Hardened Concrete : Nondestructive Methods,' ACI Monograph, No. 9, American Concrete Institute/Iowa State University Press, Detroit, 1976, pp. 204. 【10】 Komloš, K., Popovics, S., Nürnbergerová, T., Babál, B. and Popovics, J.S. (1996).〝Ultrasonic Pulse Velocity Test of Concrete Properties as Specified in Various Standards,〞Cement and Concrete Composites Volume: 18, June 1996, pp. 357-364. 【11】 ASTM C 1383 (1998). 'Standard Test Method for Measuring the P-Wave Speed and the Thickness of Concrete Plates Using the Impact-Echo Method' Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol. 04.02., 1998. 【12】 Malhotra, V.M., /Editor et al. (1984).'In Situ/Nondestructive Testing of Concrete', ACI SP-82, 1984. 【13】 Popovics.S.,'Analysis of Concrete Strength versus water-cement ratio relationshop'ACI Materials Journal,Sep.-Oct.1990,PP.517-529. 【14】 ASTM C 1074 (1992), 'Standard Practice for Estimating Concrete Strength by the Maturity Method,' Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol. 04.02. 【15】 ASTM C 873 (1992), 'Test Method for Compressive Strength of Concrete Cylinders Cast in Place in Cylindrical Molds,' Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol. 04.02. 【16】 林炳炎,'飛灰與飛灰混凝土',現代營建,民國82年7月 【17】 Dan E.Branson,'Deformation of Concrete Structure' ,1978 .p.2 【18】 A.Meyer Betonstein Zeitung,Vol.29,No.8,1963,PP.391-394. 【19】 黃兆龍,'混凝土性質與行為?,詹氏書局,民國86年8月。 【20】 'Assessing mechanical behavior and heterogeneity of low-strength mortars by the drilling resistance method' Construction and Building Materials Volume 68,15 October 2014, Pages 757-768 【21】 ASTM C 42 (1992), 'Standard Method of Obtaining amd Testing Drilled Cores and Sawed Beams of Concrete, ' Annual Book of ASTM Standards, Vol. 04.02. 【22】 經濟部標準檢驗局,2005,中國國家標準 CNS 1238混凝土鑽心試體及切鋸試體取樣法,經濟部標準檢驗局,台北。 【23】 內政部營建署編輯委員會,2002,結構混凝土施工規範第18.5節,內政部營建署營建雜誌,台北。 【24】 中國土木水利工程學會,2007,混凝土工 程施工規範與解說(土木402-94a) )第17.5節,科技圖書公司,台北。 【25】 林喻峰,'量測現地混凝土強度之微鑽孔試驗裝置',中華民國發明第I458974號-專利權期間-2014/11/01~2032/12/27。 【26】 中國工程師學會,2014,'以現地試驗討論鑽心試體長徑比之影響',中工高雄會刊,第22卷,第1期。 【27】 Charles T. Kennedy, 'The Design of Concrete Mixes', ACI Materials Journal, Vol36, 1940, pp.373-400. 【28】 Leif Berntsson, Satish Chandra, and Tomas Kutti, 'Principles and Factors Influencing High-Strength Concrete Production', Concrete International, Vol.12, No.12, December 1990, pp.59-62. 【29】 Brian B. Hope and Paul M. Hewitt, 'Progressive Concrete Mix Proportioning', ACI Materials Journal, Vol82, No.3, May-June 1985, pp.350-356. 【30】 C.C. Yang and R. Huang, ' A Two-Phase Model for Predicting the Compressive Strength of Concrete', Cement and Concrete Research, Vol.26,No.10, 1996, pp.1567-1577. 【31】 楊仲家,黃然,葉為忠, '以微觀力學探討粗骨材對高性能混凝土之影響',第三屆結構工程研討會, 1996,pp.1785-1793。 【32】 H.J. Chan, T.Yen, T.P. Lai and Y.L.Huang, 'Determination of dividing strength and its relation to the concrete strength in lightweight aggregate concrete', Cement and Concrete Composites, Vol.21, No.1, 1999, pp.29-37. 【33】 沈進發,'混凝土品質控制',第三版,民國72年9月,第7-35頁。

At present, the rebound hammer test is widely used to assess the in-place strength of concrete in Taiwan construction industry. However, the rebound hammer test rsults are largely affected by the suface condition of concrete being tested because only the concrete portion in contact with the plunger affects the number of rebound, for example, hard aggregates generates a high number of rebound; conversely, voids or soft aggreagate makes a low rebound. Thus, the same batch of concrete may lead to various rebound test results due to variation in surface conditions. This means that the stability of the rebound hammer test is not high.
In this study, a novel test technique involving micro-drilling process of concrete was proposed. The objectives of the study were to develop a new non-destructive testing device for concrete strength evaluation. In experiment, the diameter of the drill rod, the drilling depth within a certain time period, the drill rate, and the vertical weight on the rod top were considered to be the experimental parameters. Furthermore, the compressive strengths of the drilled cores of the specimens were used to establish the relationship between the concrete strength and the drilling behavior.
The experimental results show that the data obtained from tests carried out with drill rod diameter of 8 and 10 mm is very stable, and the choice of the vertical weight on the rod top has little effect. A certain trend between the concrete strength and the drilling depth as well as the drilling rate has been found. The stronger the concrete strength, the deeper the depth of drilling within a certain time period. Similarly, the stronger the concrete strength, the slower the drill rate.
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