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|標題:||Studies on the cadmium absorption ability of different cultivars of vegetable soybean（Glycine max（L）Merr.）
近年來，農產品鎘濃度對人體健康的威脅，一直受到關注。毛豆是國人重要食用蔬菜之一，本研究的目的在探討毛豆栽培種對鎘的吸收能力。採用台灣21個毛豆栽培種進行田間及水耕栽培種植試驗，田間試驗毛豆種於有輕度鎘汙染的農田，水耕栽培試驗在養液添加1.11 mg-Cd L-1鎘濃度中種植，採收時植體分成根部、莖部、葉部、豆莢、豆子等各部位進行養份及重金屬分析；分別採集根圈土壤也採集分別進行有效性養份與重金屬分析，分別採集植體進行鎘及各種成份分析，結果顯示21個栽培種資料庫中鮮豆鎘濃度與土壤有效性鎘濃度沒有相關性，但是栽培種的鮮豆鎘濃度與BCF(生物濃縮因子)有極顯著相關性GWCd=0.0320 + 0.8397 BCF, R2=0.7504 (p<0.0001)，鮮豆鎘濃度栽培種編號C18、C09、C11、C13、C14低於限量標準0.1 mg kg-1，與21個栽培種資料庫中BCF上升排序中最低的五個栽培種編號是相同的。結果也顯示，鮮豆鎘濃度與鮮莢鎘濃度相關性有極極顯著水準(p<0.0001)；具有高鎘吸收能力的栽培種前五名為編號C06、C19、C10、C15、C16，與鮮豆最高的鎘濃度栽培種編號C06、C19、C10、C04、C16有一些不同，在豆子、豆莢、葉、莖、根等各部位的乾、鮮重鎘濃度在土壤試驗和水耕栽培試驗結果完全不相關，這樣顯示水耕栽培結果無法應用在土壤栽培系統。在水耕栽培系統中栽培種編號C08、C10、C13、C14、C20沒有豆莢產生。而在土壤栽培中鮮豆鎘濃度最低的栽培種只有編號C09、C11、C18水耕栽培系統中有豆子可以採收，只有在水耕栽培中鮮豆鎘濃度第五低的栽培種C11。在土壤栽培中鮮豆鎘濃度最高的栽培種只有編號C10沒有豆子產出，其他四個栽培種都有，而在最高的鮮豆鎘濃度下栽培種編號C19、C4在水耕栽培下有豆子產出。鮮豆低鎘濃度的栽培種種皮顏色主要為淡黃色、淡綠或褐綠色，高鎘吸收能力的栽培種種皮顏色主要為褐色、黑色等深色系的種皮的毛豆栽培種。微衛星分析進行各栽培種親屬關係分群，結果顯示各分群均有高或低鎘吸收能力的栽培種存在。本研究結果顯示，未來監測高風險農地毛豆栽培種的安全性可以提早在豆莢就進行採樣檢測，以縮短監測時程。此外，低鎘吸收的毛豆栽培種可用於雜交育種，育出之低鎘吸收毛豆品種可用於種植在高風險農地，而高鎘吸收的毛豆栽培種可應用於植生復育。
In recent years, the threat of cadmium (Cd) in agricultural products to the health of human has been highly concerned. Vegetable soybean is one among important edible vegetables in Taiwan. The purpose of this study was to investigate the cadmium absorption ability of vegetable soybean. One field and one hydroponic experiment were conducted with 21 cultivars found in Taiwan. The field experiment was conducted in a light Cd polluted soil and the hydroponic experiment was conducted in nutrient solutions containing mg-Cd L-1. During harvest, the plant was separated in root, stem, leaf, pod, and grain parts for plant nutrient and heavy metals analysis, soils around plants were also collected separately for available nutrient and heavy metal analysis. Results, from the soil cultivation, showed that the Cd concentration in fresh grains (GWCd) had no relationship with the available concentration of Cd in soils among the 21 cultivars' data pool, but had highly relationship with BCF (bio-concentration factor) of these cultivars with GWCd=0.0320 + 0.8397 BCF, R2=0.7504 (p<0.0001). The GWCd concentration of cultivars C18,C 9,C11,C13, and C14 were lower than the limit at 0.1 mg kg-1, which were the same ascending BCF order of these cultivars which were the lowest five cultivars in the 21 cultivar pool. Result also indicated the GWCd concentration was highly highly correlated (P<0.0001) with the concentration of fresh pod (PWCd). The highest five BCF cultivars were C06, C19, C10, C15, and C16, which had some different from the highest GWCd cultivars C06, C19, C10, C04, and C16. The relationships of the concentration of Cd in grain, pod, leaf, stem, and root in dry and in fresh of vegetable soybean between soil and hydroponic cultivation were all not correlated. This indicates that the hydroponic cultivation results can not apply to the soil cultivation system. In the hydroponic system, cultivars C08, C10, C13, C14, and C20 had no pod produced. The lowest five cultivars of GWCd in soil cultivation only cultivars C09, C11, and C18 had grain harvested in the hydroponic system, and only the cultivar C11 on the fifth lowest GWCd. The highest five cultivars of GWCd in soil cultivation only cultivar 10 had no grain produced, the other four cultivars, only cultivar C19 and C04 were among the highest five GWCd produced in hydroponic system. The seed coat color of these cultivars with a lower cadmium absorption ability is yellow or green, but that of these cultivars with a higher cadmium uptake ability is brown or black. The dendrogram generated from the 13 microsatellite loci resulted in several clades, suggesting that the same clade included both cultivars with low and high cadmium absorption abilities. This study suggests that the cadmium concentrations of pods may be used to predict those of beans for risk management purpose. The cultivars with a lower cadmium absorption ability can be grown in fields with a high cadmium concentration and used for breeding green soybeans with a lower cadmium uptake ability. Moreover, the cultivars with a higher cadmium absorption ability may be used for phytoremediation.
|Appears in Collections:||土壤環境科學系|
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