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標題: Photo-Inactivation kinetics and mechanisms of Klebsiella pneumoniae and Aspergillus niger using visible-light-responsive photocatalyst.
作者: Ya-Zhen Huang
關鍵字: 可見光應答二氧化鈦;克雷伯氏肺炎桿菌;黑麴菌;動力模擬;光催化消毒;Visible light response Titanium dioxide;Klebsiella pneumoniae;Aspergillus niger;Kinetic model;Photocatalytic disinfection
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根據世界衛生組織(WHO)和聯合國環境規劃署(UNEP)調查報告顯示,農村地區微生物數量約為139 CFU cm-2,而都市地區微生物數量約為72110 CFU cm-2。其中致病菌株如大腸桿菌(Escherichia coli)、金黃色葡萄球菌(Staphylococcus aureus)、克雷伯氏肺炎桿菌(Klebsiella pneumoniae)等易引起感染性疾病(Peng, et al. 2008) ; 麴菌類真菌如黑麴菌(Aspergillus niger)與黃麴菌(Aspergillus flavus)等則易引起食品及環境污染(Zhang, et al. 2012)。傳統消毒技術在殺菌/抑菌過程產生有毒物與致癌性物質,如碘化物、苯酚衍生物、鄰苯二甲酸二丁酯(Dibutyl phthalate)、三鹵甲烷(Trihalomethanes)和鹵乙酸(Haloacetic acids)等(Richardson, et al. 2003)。因此發展新興抗(真)菌綠色材料為當今全球抗菌課題之當務之急。
本研究使用自製光觸媒摻氮二氧化鈦 (N-TiO2)、摻氮與電氣石二氧化鈦 (N-T-TiO2)、摻碳二氧化鈦 (C-TiO2) 與摻鈀與碳二氧化鈦 (Pd-C-TiO2) 於可見光照射下進行光催化失活,失活反應參數如: 光觸媒劑量、初始菌數密度及光強度。研究指標菌種為克雷伯氏肺炎桿菌與黑麴菌。研究數據以失活動力學模型 (Chick-Waston model、Modified Hom model、Light Chick-Waston model與Light Modified Hom model) 模擬光催化綠色材料對上述指標菌種之失活效率。實驗結果顯示四種光觸媒綠色材料,其劑量1.0 g L-1和0.5 %、光強度7.32 mW cm-2、初始細菌濃度105 CFU mL-1和105 spore # mL-1條件下皆能有效使克雷伯氏肺炎桿菌 (1440分鐘) 與黑麴菌 (168小時) 達99.999%抗菌率 ; 各別材料抗克雷伯氏肺炎桿菌/黑麴菌效率依序為Pd-C-TiO2 > C-TiO2 > N-T-TiO2 > N-TiO2。不同菌種於光催化綠色材料其耐光催化失活能力克雷伯氏肺炎桿菌 (Pd-C-TiO2, 210分鐘) < 黑麴菌(Pd-C-TiO2, 96小時),根據前人文獻與本研究所拍攝的電顯圖得知黑麴菌的細胞壁比克雷伯氏肺炎桿菌厚,故在相同條件下失活效率比克雷伯氏肺炎桿菌低。Chick-Waston model、Modified Hom model、Light-Chick-Waston model和Light-Modified Hom model皆有符合實驗數據的潛力,且k值皆具有規律性,如使用Modified Hom model進行模擬,克雷伯氏肺炎桿菌與黑麴菌的模擬,顯示兩者光催化失活反應的三階段參數變化一致,皆是第一階段 (緩衝期) 失活速率常數 (k1) 值趨勢會往上升 ; 第二階段 (對數期) 失活速率常數 (k2) 值趨勢會往上升 ; 第三階段 (遲滯期) 失活速率常數 (k3) 值趨勢會往下降。透過SEM、TEM、TXM和AFM了解改質過的二氧化鈦對克雷伯氏肺炎桿菌和黑麴菌進行光催化失活反應過程中細胞表面與型態的變化,並藉由K+、CoA、MDA、DNA和蛋白質的釋出,探討進行光催化失活反應的機制。

According to the investigation report from World Health Organization (WHO) and the United Nations Environment Program (UNEP), with the number of bacteria being ∼139 CFU cm-2 in the countryside and 72,110 CFU cm-2 in an urban environment(Peng, et al. 2008). Among them, some pathogenic strains such as Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae were caused infectious diseases ; some fungus such as Aspergillus niger and Aspergillus flavus are easy to caused food and environmental pollution (Zhang, et al. 2012). Due to traditional disinfection techniques produce toxic and carcinogenic substances in sterilization and antibacterial processes, such as iodide, derivatives of phenol, dibutyl phthalate, trihalomethanes and haloacetic acids. Therefore, development of new anti-bacteria (fungus) green materials is the top priority issue for today.
In this research, homemade N-TiO2, N-T-TiO2, C-TiO2 and Pd-C-TiO2 were carried out photocatalytic deactivated under visible light irradiation. The inactivation reaction parameters including photocatalyst dose, the bacteria initial concentration and light intensity. The bioindicators were Klebsiella pneumoniae and Aspergillus niger. The experimental data were used to simulate the deactivation efficiency of the above-mentioned indicators strain by using the (Chick-Waston model, Modified Hom model, Light Chick-Waston model and Light Modified Hom model). The results showed that when the four photocatalytic materials were 1.0 g L-1 and 0.5%, the light intensity was 7.32 mW cm-2, and the initial bacterial concentrations were 105 CFU mL-1 and 105 spore # mL-1 can effectively make Klebsiella pneumoniae (1440 minutes) and Aspergillus niger (168 hours) reach 99.999% of the antibacterial rate. The antibacterial efficiency of each material on Klebsiella pneumoniae / Aspergillus niger was Pd-C-TiO2> C-TiO2> N-T-TiO2> N-TiO2. Effects of different microbial species on anti-photocatalytic deactivation with these four kinds of photocatalytic materials, Klebsiella pneumoniae (Pd-C-TiO2, 210 min) was lower than that of Aspergillus niger (Pd-C-TiO2, 96 hours). According to the electron micrograph of this study and predecessors studies, it was found that the cell wall of Aspergillus niger was thicker than Klebsiella pneumoniae, so the efficiency of inactivation was lower than that of Klebsiella pneumoniae under the same conditions. Chick-Waston model, Modified Hom model, Light-Chick-Waston model, and Light-Modified Hom model showed the potential to fit the experimental data and k values are regular, if the use of Modified Hom model for Klebsiella pneumoniae and Aspergillus niger simulation operation, showing the two photocatalytic deactivation reaction of the three-phase parameter changes are consistent. The trend of the first stage (buffer period) inactivation rate constant (k1) tends to rise; the second stage (logarithmic period) inactivation rate constant (k2) tends to rise; the third stage (lag phase) inactivation rate Constant (k3) value tends to decline. In this research, SEM, TEM, TXM and AFM were used to investigate the changes of cell surface and morphology in the photocatalytic deactivation of Klebsiella pneumoniae and Aspergillus niger during photocatalytic deactivation of modified titanium dioxide, and the mechanism of photocatalytic deactivation were explored by the release of K+, CoA, MDA, DNA and protein.
The results of this research show that the homemade photocatalyst titanium dioxide has a high efficiency of antibacterial activity with the bioindicators such as Klebsiella pneumoniae and Aspergillus niger can reach 99.999% antibacterial rate and no traditional energy consumption, resulting in toxic byproducts and other shortcomings. In the future, these four materials can be widely used in anti-(fungi) and environmental anti-bacterial technology level and a high potential for development.
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