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|標題:||Effects of elevated CO₂, nitrogen fertilization, and inoculated Azotobacter spp. on rice growth
|關鍵字:||氣候變遷;游離固氮菌;水稻;Climate change;Azotobacter;Rice||引用:||王喻其、王泰權、陳富翔、蔡永勝、李宏萍、費雯綺。2012。植物保護手冊–水稻病蟲害篇。行政院農業委員會農業藥物毒物試驗所。 姜金龍、廖乾華、廖芳心、林孟輝、羅秋雄、傅仰人、許啟誠。2010。桃園區農業技術專輯第6號-水稻專輯。行政院農業委員會桃園區農業改良場。 陳隆澤、羅正宗、吳永培、陳一心。2004。水稻新品種-臺農秈 22 號之育成。行政院農業委員會農業試驗所技術服務季刊，59:10-13。 Adam, G., and H. Duncan. 2001. Development of a sensitive and rapid method for the measurement of total microbial activity using fluorescein diacetate (FDA) in a range of soils. Soil Biol. Biochem. 33: 943-951. Ahemad, M., and M. Kibret. 2014. Mechanisms and applications of plant growth promoting rhizobacteria: Current perspective. Journal of King Saud University-Science 26: 1-20. Ainsworth, E.A., and A. Rogers. 2007. The response of photosynthesis and stomatal conductance to rising [CO₂]: Mechanisms and environmental interactions. Plant Cell Environ. 30: 258-270. Aquilanti, L., F. Favilli, and F. Clementi. 2004. Comparison of different strategies for isolation and preliminary identification of Azotobacter from soil samples. 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水稻是全球主要的糧食作物之一，但氣候變遷對水稻之衝擊可能影響糧食安全。本研究探討不同二氧化碳濃度下，水稻種植於兩種不同土壤、接種游離固氮菌Azotobacter菌株和施用不同氮肥施用量對水稻生長之影響。本研究為複因子試驗設計，包含兩種土壤 (大里和後龍水稻田土壤) 、兩種二氧化碳處理 (500和1000 ppm) 、四種氮肥施用量 (0、60、120及180 kg ha-¹) 及四種接種處理 (3株供試菌株和不接種處理) ，每處理3重複。結果顯示，高二氧化碳環境下 (1000 ppm) ，接種A. chroococcum strain CHB869可顯著增加水稻之總乾重，顯示該菌株可促進水稻的生長和降低逆境之衝擊。高二氧化碳下，大里土壤增加氮肥施用量，因氮肥過量形成逆境降低收穫指數，但於後龍土壤則補償植物氮肥所需而明顯增加收穫指數。高二氧化碳下，大里土壤接種CHB869菌株可顯著增加水稻的穗重、千粒重和收穫指數，但後龍土壤僅接種A. beijerinckii strain CHB 461能顯著增加水稻的千粒重。高二氧化碳下，增加氮肥施用量可顯著增加大里土壤植體養分吸收量，但在後龍土壤，施用高氮肥處理 (180 kg ha-¹) 則明顯降低氮、磷及鉀吸收量。此外，大里土壤接種Azotobacter菌株及後龍土壤接種CHB461顯著降低水稻營養器官中養分的吸收量而提升稻穀養分含量。高二氧化碳下，後龍土壤接種CHB461及大里土壤接種CHB869可降低土壤碳氮比，增加氮源提供，而促進植株生長增加產量。本研究顯示，因應未來氣候變水稻之生產管理，依土壤條件施用適當的Azotobacter菌株和適合的氮肥施用量，並配合土壤肥培管理應可確保氣候變遷下水稻之產量，以維護糧食安全。
Rice is one of the most important food crops in the world, but climate change may affect its yield. The purpose of this study was to study the effects of CO₂ concentrations, soil types, Azotobacter inoculations, and nitrogen fertilization rates on rice growth. A factorial design experiment was carried out including two CO₂ concentrations (500 and 1000 ppm), two soil types (Dali and Houlong soils), four N application rates (0, 60, 120, and 180 kg ha-¹), and four Azotobacter inoculation treatments with a non-inoculated control. Each treatment included three replicates and was arranged in controlled greenhouses using the randomized complete block design. Inoculation of rice plants with A.chroococcum strain CHB869 significantly increased total dry weight under 1000 ppm CO₂, suggesting that the strain considerably promoted rice growth under stresses. Under 1000 ppm CO₂, the harvest index for rice plants grown in Dali soil decreased significantly because excessive N fertilization might result in stresses. In contrast, the harvest index for rice plants grown in Houlong soil under 1000 ppm CO₂ increased significantly with increasing N fertilization. The panicle weight, thousand grain weight, and harvest index of rice plants grown under 1000 ppm CO₂ in Dali soil were significantly increased by CHB869 inoculation. However, only under 1000 ppm CO₂ rice plants inoculated with A.beijerinckii strain CHB461 and grown in Houlong soil showed a significant increase in the thousand weight. Under 1000 ppm CO₂, nutrients uptake of rice plants grown in Dali soil increased significantly with increasing N fertilization. However, the N application rate of 180 kg ha-¹ significantly reduced N, P and K uptake of rice plants grown in Houlong soil. In addition, nutrient uptake of vegetative organs of rice plants grown in Dali soil with the tree individual Azotobacter strains and in Houlong soil with CHB 461 was significantly reduced probably because the nutrients translocated into grains. Under 1000 ppm CO₂, Dali soil inoculated with CHB869 and Houlong soil inoculated with CHB461 significantly reduced soil C/N ratio, providing more nitrogen for root uptake and consequently increasing yields Taken together, the use of Azotobacter spp. along with an appropriate soil fertility management program based on soil properties may ensure yields for rice production under climate change impacts, contributing to food security.
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