Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/96248
標題: Effect of the household processing on chlorpyrifos removal from Brassica rapa chinensis
家庭處理方法對移除殘留於不結球白菜(Brassica rapa chinensis)上陶斯松的影響
作者: Ching-Han Tsai
蔡青翰
關鍵字: 陶斯松;家庭處理;不結球白菜;chlorpyrifos;household;Brassica rapa chinensis
引用: 平山一政。2014。50 ℃清洗和70 ℃蒸煮的美味魔法。原水文化。 林怡君。2009。Neurospora crassa 真菌殘體對溶液中六價鉻的移除機制。國立中興大學土壤環境科學系碩士論文。 金紹強。2008。毒死蜱、聯苯菊酯在土壤中的消解及對白蟻防治持效性研究。浙江大學。 陳巧明。2008。紅甘藷對人體抗氧化、免疫調節及促血管新生活性之影響。台北醫學大學藥學系博士論文。 徐永鑫,蔡惠婷,陳姿伶,黃湞鈺。2011。不同種類油脂對食品乳化系統安定性之影響。華醫學報。34期11-19頁。 陳美蓮。2014。栽植作物有機磷農藥噴灑作業暴露評估研究。行政院勞工委員會勞工安全衛生研究所。 翁愫慎。1985。農藥殘留於食用作物中之消失。農藥毒性研討會。 翁愫慎。2005。臺灣農家要覽:農作篇(三)。行政院農業委員會出版。 張格成。2009。果園農藥使用指南。金盾出版社。 張淑敏。認識油炸油PPT。臺中市衛生局。 曾昭銘。2013。第33屆國際鹵化持久性有機汙染物-戴奧辛2013研討會報告。行政院農委會農業藥物毒物試驗所。 曾德賜。2016。農藥藥理與運用:殺蟲劑。藝軒出版社 葉枚耕。1986。農藥生物化學。國立編譯館。 楊婷勻。2014。陶斯松在茶樹土壤中的吸附及在茶樹葉面上的光降解研究。國立中興大學土壤環境科學系碩士論文。 劉豐茂。2011。農藥質量與殘留食用檢測技術。北京化學工業出版社。 顏瑞泓。2014。正確洗菜,擺脫農藥陰影。商周出版。 行政院農業委員會動植物防疫檢疫局/農藥資訊服務網/農藥簡介/農藥簡介內容。(http://pesticidebaphiq.gov.tw/web/briefDetailView.aspx?sn=34) 行政院環保署/毒理資料庫/陶斯松/CAS_NO2921-88-2。(https://flora2.epa.gov.tw/_ToxicWeb/ToxicUC4/DataBase/7401.htm) 行政院農業委員會農業藥物毒物試驗所/農藥作用機制及化學分類檢索/農藥名稱/陶斯松。(http://ogserv.tactri.gov.tw/moa/) 衛生福利部食品藥物管理署。2014。食品中殘留農藥檢驗方法—多重殘留分析方法(五)。 食品藥物管理署網站/歷年市售農產品殘留農藥監測 (http://www.fda.gov.tw/TC/site.aspx?sid=2428) 國家環境毒物研究中心。2014。2013年台灣市售農產品殘留農藥:常見超標農藥毒理學資訊。 Abou-Arab, A.A.K. 1999. Behavior of pesticides in tomatoes during commercial and home preparation. Food Chemistry. 65(2):509-514. Andlauer, W., C. Stumpf, M. Hubert , A. Rings, and P. Furst. 2003. Influence of cooking process on phenolic marker compounds of vegetables. Int. J. Vitam Nutr. Res. 73:152–9. Arita, T. 1994. Elution patterns of post-harvest application pesticides from noodles during the boiling process. J. Food Hyg. Soc. Japan. 35:34-40. Awasthi, M.D. 1993. Decontamination of insecticide residues on mango by washing and peeling. Journal of Food Science and Technology. 30:132-133. Bajwa, U., and K.S. Sandhu. 2014. Effect of handling and processing on pesticide residues in food- a review. J. Food Sci. Technol. 51(2):201-220. Barroga, F.C., A.C. Laurena, and E.M.T. Mendoza. 1985. Polyphenols in Mung bean (Vigna radiate, L.Wilczek): determination and removal. J. Agric. Food Chem. 33:1006–9. Berkowitz, G.S., J. Obel, E. Deych, R. Lapinski, J.Godbold, Z.S. Liu, P.J. Landrigan, and M.S. Wolff. 2003. Exposure to indoor pesticides during pregnancy in a multiethnic, urban cohort. Environ. Health Perspect. 111:79-84. Brajesh, K.S., and A. Walker. 2006. Microbial degradation of organophosphorus compounds. FEMS Microbiol Rev. 30: 428–471. Bunea, A., M. Andjeldkovic, C. Socaciu, O. Bobis, M. Neacsu, R. Verhe, and J. Van Camp. 2008. Total and individual carotenoids and phenolic acids content in fresh, refrigerated and processed spinach (Spinacia oleracea L.). Food Chem. 108:649–56. Byrne, S. L., and S.L. Pinkerton. 2004. The effect of cooking on chlorpyrifos and 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol levels in chlorpyrifos-fortified produce for use in refining dietary exposure. J. Agric. Food Chem. 52: 7567-7573. Cain, R.B., C. Houghton, and K.A. Wright. 1974. Microbial metabolism of the pyridine ring. Metabolism of 2- and 3-hydroxypyridines by the maleamate pathway in Achromobacter sp. Biochim. Biophys. Acta. 78: 577-587. Carvalho, F.P., S.W. Fowler, J. P. Villeneuve, and M. Horvat. 1997. Pesticide residues in the marine environment and analytical quality assurance of the results. In: Proceedings of an International FAO/IAEA Symposium on the Environmental Behaviour of Crop Protection Chemicals. IAEA, Vienna, pp. 35–57. Cengiz, M.F., M. Catal, F. Erler, and K. Bilgin. 2014. The effects of heat treatment on the degradation of the organophosphate pesticide chlorpyrifos-ethyl in tomato homogenate. Quality Assurance and Safety of Crops & Foods. 7 (4) :537 - 544. Cocker, J., H.J. Mason, S.J. Garfitt, and K. Jones. 2002. Biological monitoring of exposure to organophosphate pesticides. Toxical. Lett. 134:97-103. DIRECTIVE OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND OF THE COUNCIL. 1998. Concerning the placing of biocidal products on the market. Official Journal of the European Communities. Eaton, D.L., R.B. Daroff, H. Autrup, J. Bridges, P. Buffler, L.G. Costa, J. Coyle, G. McKhann, W. C. Mobley, L. Nadel, D. Neubert, R. Schulte-Hermann, and P. S. Spencer. 2008. Review of the toxicology of chlorpyrifos with an emphasis on human exposure and neurodevelopment. Crit. Rev. Toxicol. 38:1-125. Elkins E.R. 1989. Effect of commercial processing on pesticide residues in selected fruits and vegetables. Journal of AOAC International. 72:533-535. Eskenazi, B., A. Bradman, and R. Castorina. 1999. Exposures of children to organophosphate pesticides and their potential adverse health effects. Environ. Health Perspect. 107:409-419. Eyer, P. 2003. The role of oximes in the management of organophosphorus pesticide poisoning. Toxicol Rev. 22(3):165-90. FAO/WHO. 1999. Joint FAO/WHO Meeting on Pesticide Residues. Rome, 20-29 September. Feng, Y.E., R.D. Minard, and J.M. Bollag. 1998. Photolytic and microbial degradation of 3, 5, 6-trichloro-2-pyridinol. Environ. Toxicol. Chem. 17: 814–819. Geisman, J.R., F. A. Gunther, and J. D., Gunther. 1975. Reduction of pesticide residues in food crops by processing. Residue reviews. Residues of pesticides and other contaminants in the total environment Vol. 54, pp. 43–54. Grabusky J, P.A. Martin, and J. Struger. 2004. Pesticides in Ontario: A Critical Assessment of Potential Toxicity of Urban Use Products to Wildlife, with Consideration for Endocrine Disruption. Vol. 3, Phenoxy Herbicides, Chlorothalonil and Chlorpyrifos. Technical Report Series No. 410. Burlington, Ontario, Canada: Canadian Wildlife Service. Guardia-Rubio, M., M.J. Ayora, and A. Ruiz-Medina. 2007. Effect of washing on pesticide residues in olives. Journal of Food Science. 72:139-143. Gunstone, F.D. 2011.Vegetable Oils in Food Technology Composition, Properties and Uses Second Edition. Blackwell Publishing Ltd. Gurr, E. 1962. Effect of heat on the pH of water and aqueous dye solutions. Nature. 195:1199-200. Hadjikinova, M., T. Prokopov, and D. Taneva. 2006. Decontaminating effect in the processing of contaminated with pesticides cherries. Khranitelno-vkusova-Promishlenost. 12:24-27. Huan, Z., Z. Xu, W. Jiang, Z. Chen, and J. Luo. 2015. Effect of Chinese traditional cooking on eight pesticides residue during cowpea processing. Food Chemistry. 170:118-122. Hui, T.J., M.M. Ariffin, and N.M. Tahir. 2010. Hydrolysis of chlorpyrifos in aqueous solutions at different temperature and pH. The Malaysian Journal of Analytical Sciences. Vol. 14. No.2 :50-55. Ikeura, H., F. Kobayashi, and M.Tamaki. 2011. Removal of residual pesticides in vegetables using ozone microbubbles. Journal of Hazardous Materials. 186:956-959. IOL News. 2012. Harmful pesticide banned in SA - South Africa. Jaggi, S., C. Sood, V. Kumar, S.D. Ravindranath,and A. Shanker. 2001. Leaching of pesticides in tea brew. J. Agric. Food Chem. 49:5479–5483. Janice, E. 1992. Organophosphate: chemistry, fate, and effects. Academic Press. Kaiser, J.P., Y. Feng, and J.M. Bollag. 1996. Microbial metabolism of pyridine, quinoline, acridine and their derivatives under aerobic and anaerobic conditions. Microbiol. Rev. 60: 483-498. Khaire, J.T., and M.D. Deethe. 1983. Effects of washing and cooking on the dimethoate level in cauliflower curds. J. Maharashtra Agric. Univ. 8(1):61–62. Kong, Z.Q., F.S. Dong, J. Xu, X.G. Liu, J. Li, and Y.B. Li. 2012. Degradation of acephate and its metabolite methamidophos in rice during processing and storage. Food Control. 23: 149–153. Krol, W.J., T.L. Arsenault, H.M. Pylypiw, and M.J.I. Mattina. 2000. Reduction of pesticide residues on produce by rinsing. J. Agric. Food Chem. 48:4666-4670. Kwong, T.C. 2002. Organophosphate pesticides: biochemistry and clinical toxicology. Ther. Drug Monit.24: 144-9. Lee, M.G., and S.R. Lee. 1997. Reduction factors and risk assessment of organophosphorus pesticides in Korean foods. Korean J. Food Sci. Technol. 29:240-248. Lewis, D.J., S.A. Thorpe, K. Wilkinson, and S.L. Reynolds. 1998. The carry-through of residues of maleic hydrazide from treated potatoes, following manufacture into potato crisps and jacket potato crisps. Food Addi Contam. 13:221-29. Liang, Y., W. Wang, Y. Shen, Y. Liu, and X.j. Liu. 2012. Effects of home preprartion on organophosphorus pesticide residues in raw cucumber. Food Chem. 133:636-640. Ling, Y., H. Wang, W. Yong, F. Zhang, L. Sun, M.L. Yang, Y.N. Wu, and X.G. Chu. 2011. The effects of washing and cooking on chlorpyrifos and its toxic metabolites in vegetables. Food Control. 22:54-58. Lu, F.C. 1994. Basic Toxicology. 藝軒. Macalady, D.L., and N.L. Wolfe. 1983. New perspectives on the hydrolytic degradation of the organophorothioate insecticide chlorpyrifos. J. Agric. Food Chem. 31:1139-1147. Mani, V., and S. Konar. 1988. Pollutional hazards of the pesticide chlorpyrifos on aquatic ecosystem. Environment and Ecology. 6:460-462. Muscarella, D. E., J. F. Keown, and S.E. Bloom. 1984. Evaluation of the genotoxic and embryotoxic potential of chlorpyrifos and its metabolities in vivo and in vitro. Environmental Mutagenesis. 6(1):13-23. Nakamura Y., Y. Sekiguchi, S. Hsegawa, Y. Tongai, and Y. Ito. 1993. Reduction in post harvest-applied dichlorvos, chlorophos-methyl, Malathion, fenitrothion and bromide in rice during storage and cooking processes. J. Agric. Food Chem. 41:1910-1915. Nagesh M., and S. Verma. 1997. Decontamination of cabbage treated with chlorpyrifos and quinalphos. Indian J. Entomol. 59:404-410. Nath, G., R.N. Jat, and B.P. Srivastava. 1975. Effect of washing, cooking and dehydration on the removal of some Insecticides from Okra(Abemlmoschus esculentus Moench.). J. Food Sci. Technol. 12:127-130. National Registration Authority for Agricultural and Veterinary Chemicals (NRA). 2000. The NRA Review of chlorpyrifos. Vol. 1. ISSN:14432528. Osman, K.A., A.I. Al-Humaid, K.N. Al-Redhaiman, and R.A. El-Mergawi. 2014. Safty methods for chlorpyrifos removal from date fruits and its relation with sugars, phenolics and antioxidant capacity of fruits. J. Food Sci. Technol. 51(9):1762-1772. Racke, K.D. K.P. Steele, R.N. Yoder, W.A. Dick, and E. Avidov. 1996. Factors affecting the hydrolytic degradation of chlorpyrifos in soil. J. Agric. Food Chem. 44:1582-1592. Rahman, M.F., M. Mahboob, K. Danadevi, B.S. Banu, and P. Grover. 2002. Assessment of genotoxic effects of chlorpyrifos and acephate by the comet assay in mice leukocytes. Mutat. Res. Genet. Toxicol. Environ. Mutagen. 516:139-147. Randhawa, M.A., F.M. Anjum, A. Ahmed, and M.S. Randhawa. 2007. Field incurred chlorpyrifos and 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol residues in fresh and processed vegetables. Food Chemistry. 103:1016-1023. Rocha-Guzman N.E., R.F. Gonzalez-Laredo, F. J. Ibarra-Perez, C.A. Nava-Berumen, and J.A. Gallegos-Infante. 2007. Effect of pressure-cooking on the antioxidant of extracts from three common bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.) cultivars. Food Chemistry. 100:31-5. Rodriguez, H., and E. Bustos-Obregon. 2000. An in vitro model to evaluate the effect of an organophosphoric agropesticide on cell proliferation in mouse seminiferous tubules. Andrologia. 32:1-5. Sarabia, L., I. Maurer, and E. Bustos-Obregon. 2009. Melatonin prevents damage elicited by the organophosphorous pesticide diazinon on mouse sperm DNA. Ecotox. Environ. Safe. 72:663-668. Sharma, J., S. Satya, V. Kumar, and D. K. Tewary. 2005. Dissipation of pesticides during breadmaking. J. Chem. Health Safety. 12:17-22. Shimizu, A., S. Maeda, and T. Iizuka. 2013. Removal of pesticide residue in cherry tomato by hydrostatic pressure. J. Food Eng. 116:796-800. Shukla, O.P. 1984. Microbial transformation of pyridine derivatives. J. Sci. Ind. Res. 43: 98-116. Sims, G.K., and E.J. O'Loughlin. 1989. Degradation of pyridines in the environment. Crit. Rev. Environ. Control. 19: 309-340. Smith, J.H., W.R. Mabey, N. Bohonos, B.R. Holt, S.S. Lee, T.W. Chou, D.C. Bomberger, and T. Mill. 1978. Environmental pathways of selected chemicals in freshwater systems: Part II. Laboratory studies. U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Athens, GA, EPA-600/7-78-074. Sparling, D.W., and G. Fellers. 2007. Comparative toxicity of chlorpyrifos, diazinon, malathion and their oxon derivatives to larval Rana boylii. Environ. Pollut. 147(3): 535-9. Sultana, B., F. Anwas, S. Iqbal. 2007. Effect of different cooking methods on the antioxidant activity of some vegetables from Pakistan. Int. J. Food Sci. Technol. Vol.43, pp.560-567. Tao, C. J., Y. Hu, J. Z. Li, S.S. Zheng, W. Liu, and C.J. Li. 2009. Multi-Residue Determination of Pesticides in Vegetables by Gas Chromatography/Ion Trap Mass Spectrometry. Bull. Environ. Contam. Toxicol. 82:111-115. Tomlin, C.D.S. 2006. The Pesticide Manual, A World Compendium, 14th Edition British Crop Protection Council. Alton, Hampshire, 186-187. Turkmen, N., F. Sari, and S. Velioglu. 2005. The effect of cooking methods on total phenolics and antioxidant activity of selected green vegetables. Food Chem. 93:713-8. US.EPA, 2000. Human Health Risk Assessment: Chlorpyrifos. (http://www.epa.gov/scipoly/sap/meetings/2008/september/hed_ra.pdf). USEPA/Chemicals and Toxics Topics/pestcide chemical/ Pesticide Product Information System/chlorpyrifos (https://www.epa.gov/ingredients-used-pesticide-products/chlorpyrifos) Vale, J.A. 1998. Toxicokinetic and toxicodynamic aspects of organophosphorus insecticide poisoning. Toxicol. Lett. 103:649-652. Van Wijngaarden, R.P.A., T.C.M. Brock, and M.T. Douglas. 2005. Effect of chlorpyrifos in freshwater model ecosystems: the influence of experimental conditions on ecotoxicological thresholds. Pest Manag. Sci. 61:923-935. Wen, K. C., T. Shimamoto, T. Nishihara, and M. Kondo. 1985. Behavior of pesticides during cooking treatments. EISEI KAGAKU. Vol.31 No.2,pp.101-106. WHO. 2008. WHO Specification for public health pesticides chlorpyrifos FAO/WHO evaluation report. pp.14. Yong, K.C. 2009. Prohibition on the use of chlorpyrifos in Singapore. National Environment Agency. Zhao, L.,J. Ge, F. Liu, and N. Jiang. 2014. Effects of storage and processing on residue levels of chlorpyrifos in soybeans. Food Chemistry. 150:182–186. Zhou, Q., X. Sun, R. Gao, Q. Zhang and, W. Wang. 2010. Mechanism study on OH-initiated atmospheric degradation of the organophosphorus pesticide chlorpyrifos. Journal of Molecular Structure: THEOCHEM. 952: 8-15.
摘要: 
近年來食安問題層出不窮,農藥殘留的問題也越來越被重視,根據食藥署在2013年調查指出,陶斯松為台灣市售農產品中常見農藥殘留超標的前三名。陶斯松( Chlorpyrifos ),化學式為O,O-diethyl-O-3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridyl,為農民常用之有機磷類殺蟲劑,因其對哺乳類動物的神經毒毒性高,國際對陶斯松使用的限制逐漸嚴苛。本研究擬利用家庭處理常用的方法來移除蔬菜上陶斯松的殘留,以降低陶斯松對人體的危害,本研究分為兩個部分,第一個部份為在純水系統中,於不同溫度、時間、與添加葵花油比例的條件下,探討水中陶斯松濃度的變化;第二部份則探討含有陶斯松之小白菜經過家庭處理方法下(如清洗及水煮),對移除殘留於小白菜上陶斯松的影響。結果顯示,在純水系統中,陶斯松的濃度變化受到溫度的影響非常大,溫度越高陶斯松降解越快,且在pH值升高的情況下其降解速率也會增加。添加不同比例葵花油於純水系統之後發現,在低比例的葵花油之添加下,溫度仍為影響水中陶斯松濃度主要原因,但是在高比例添加的情況下,影響水中陶斯松濃度主因為葵花油的影響。在清洗試驗的結果顯示,小白菜上陶斯松移除的效果為小蘇打>葵花油>醋酸>檸檬汁,其原因為陶斯松在弱酸性的環境下較穩定不易降解,反之,在鹼性環境下陶斯松容易水解。因葵花油與陶斯松皆為疏水性物質,故小白菜葉面上的陶斯松容易分配到葵花油中。在川燙試驗的結果發現,移除陶斯松效果最佳的條件為90 ℃下加入10%葵花油後川燙3分鐘,其移除率可以達到70%。在川燙試驗後測定植體、水、與油中陶斯松分佈比例,以90 ℃加入10 %葵花油後川燙3分鐘為例,可以得知陶斯松在水中的比例佔7 ~ 10%,植體上殘留30%,其餘近28%的陶斯松分配於葵花油中,而經化學降解的陶斯松約佔32%,由此結果得知,經過加油烹煮後,陶斯松主要存在於小白菜植體內及葵花油中。

In recent years, the food safety issue recently receives much public concerns. According to the Taiwan Food and Drug Administration's survey in 2013, chlorpyrifos is the top three pesticide residues in Taiwan agricultural products. Chlorpyrifos (O, O-diethyl-O-3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridyl) is an organic phosphorus insecticide and widely used by farmers, because of its high toxic neurotoxicity to mammals, chlorpyrifos is gradually restrictions in the international community. In this study we use the household treatment to remove the residue of chlorpyrifos on vegetables. The research was divided into two parts (1) investigate the effect of chlorpyrifos concentration changes under the conditions of different temperature, time and sunflower oil ratio in pure water system. (2) To investigate the effect of the household processing on chlorpyrifos removal from Brassica rapa chinensis. The results demonstrate that the concentration of chlorpyrifos affect by the high temperature in the water system, and the degradation rate increases with the high pH value. Add different proportions of sunflower oil to the water system revealed that under the low proportion of sunflower oil, the temperature was still the main reason for the decrease of the concentration of chlorpyrifos but in the case of high proportion, the main reason is sunflower oil. The results of the washing test showed that the effect of the removal of chlorpyrifos on Brassica rapa chinensis was baking soda> sunflower oil> acetic acid> lemon juice. In the blanching test, the best removal condition was adding 10% sunflower oil at 90 degree and blanching for 3 minutes, the removal rate could reach 70%. After blanch , we can see that the proportion of chlorpyrifos, 7 to 10% in the water, 30% residual on the plant, sunflower oil and the other is majority of the proportion, respectively, 28% and 32%, the result shows that the main pathway is sunflower oil and thermal degradation to remove the chlorpyrifos on Brassica rapa chinensis.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/96248
Rights: 同意授權瀏覽/列印電子全文服務,2020-08-23起公開。
Appears in Collections:土壤環境科學系

Files in This Item:
File SizeFormat Existing users please Login
nchu-106-7103039017-1.pdf3.67 MBAdobe PDFThis file is only available in the university internal network    Request a copy
Show full item record
 

Google ScholarTM

Check


Items in DSpace are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.