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|標題:||Reducing ammonia discharge in composting of hen-manure by microorganisms
|關鍵字:||氨氧化菌;堆肥;ammonia-oxidizing bacteria;compost||引用:||邱建中。2014。蛋雞糞低調整材添加之快速堆肥化研究。國立中興大學土壤環境科學系碩士論文，台中。 行政院農委會。2008。禽畜糞堆肥製作與施用手冊。行政院農委會網站 http://tagis.coa.gov.tw/pages/Data/Pro/b5.pdf 中興大學土調中心。2012。肥料檢驗方法。國立中興大學土壤調查試驗中心，台中。 行政院農委會。2012。肥料管理法規彙編。 黃裕銘、陳仁炫、吳正宗。2000。全省禽畜糞堆肥場堆肥成分分析手冊。pp. 59-65，國立中興大學，台中。 陳仁炫、鍾仁賜、黃裕銘、鄒裕民、陳鴻基、吳正宗。2008。土壤與肥料分析手冊(一)。 土壤化學性質分析，pp. 19-63，中華土壤肥料學會。 Adler, P.R., and L.J. Sikora. 2003. Changes in soil phosphorus availability with poultry compost age. Commun. Soil Sci. Plant Anal. 34:81-95. Alfano, G., C. Belli, G. Lustrato, and G. Ranalli. 2008. Pile composting of two-phase centrifuged olive husk residues: Technical solutions and quality of cured compost. Bioresour. Technol. 99:4694-4701. Bertoldi, M.d., G. Vallini, and A. Pera. 1983. The biology of composting: A review. Waste Manag. 1:157-176. Dumontet, S., H. Dinel, and S.B. Baloda. 1999. Pathogen reduction in sewage sludge by composting and other biological treatment: A Review. Biol. Agric. Hortic. 16:409-430. Eiland, F., A.M. Lind, M. Leth, J.J.L. Iversen, M. Klamer, and H.E.K. Jensen. 2001. C and N turnover and lignocellulose degradation during composting of Miscanthus straw and liquid pig manure. Compost Sci. Util. 9:186. Fukumoto, Y., and K. Inubushi. 2009. Effect of nitrite accumulation on nitrous oxide emission and total nitrogen loss during swine manure composting. Soil Sci. Plant Nutr. 55: 428-434. Hao, X., C. Chang, and F.J. Larney. 2004. Carbon, nitrogen balances and greenhouse gas emission during cattle feedlot manure composting. J. Environ. Qual. 33:37-44. Hawkesa, F.R., I. Hussy, G. Kyazze, R. Dinsdale, and D.L. Hawkes. 2007. Continuous dark fermentative hydrogen production by mesophilic microflora: Principles and progress. Int. J. Hydrogen Energy 32:172-184 Michel Jr., F.C., L.J. Forney, A.J.F. Huang, S. Drew, M. Czuprenski, J.D. Lindeberg., and C.A. Reddy. 1996. Effects of turning frequency, leaves to grass mix ratio, and windrow vs. pile Configuration on the composting of yard trimmings. Compost Sci. Util. 4:126-143. Lebedeva, EV., M. Alawi, C. Fiencke, B. Namsaraev, E. Bock, and E. Spieck. 2005. Moderately thermophilic nitrifying bacteria from a hot spring of the Baikal rift zone. FEMS Microbiol. Ecol. 54: 297-306. Kuroda, K., D. Hanajima, Y. Fukumoto, K. Suzuki, S. Kawamoto, J. Shima, and K. Haga. 2004. Isolation of thermophilic ammonium-tolerant bacterium and its application to reduce ammonia emission during composting of animal wastes. Biosci. Biotech. Biochem. 68: 286-292. Liang, Y., J.J. Leonard, J.J.R. Feddes, and W.B. McGill. 2006. Influence of carbon and buffer amendment on ammonia volatilization in composting Bioresour. Technol. 97:748-761. Mevel, G., and D. Prieur. 2000. Heterotrophic nitrification by a thermophilic Bacillus species as influenced by different culture conditions. Can. J. Micorbiol. 46: 465-473. Miner, R., J.D. Godwin, P. Brooks, W. Rulkens, and C. Kielich. 1995. A protocol to evaluate the effectiveness of odor control additives. In 'Proceedings of International Livestock Odor Conference '95: New Knowledge inLivestock Odor', Iowa State University. Ames. Iowa.pp. 114-120. Osada, T., K. Kuroda, and Yonaga. M. 2000. Determination of nitrous oxide, methane, and ammonia emissions from a swine waste composting process. J. Mater. Cycles Waste Manag. 2: 51–56. Ramaswamy, J., S.O. Prasher, R.M. Patel, S.A. Hussain, and S.F. Barrington. 2010. The effect of composting on the degradation of a veterinary pharmaceutical. Bioresour. Technol. 101:2294-2299. Shimaya, C., and T. Hashimoto, 2011. Isolation and characterization of novel thermophilic nitrifying Bacillus sp. from compost. Soil Science Plant Nutr. 57: 150-156. Said-Pullicino, D., F.G. Erriquens, and G. Gigliotti. 2007. Changes in the chemical characteristics of water-extractable organic matter during composting and their influence on compost stability and maturity. Bioresour. Technol. 98:1822-1831. Shimaya, C., and T. Hashimoto. 2008. Improvement of media for thermophilic ammonia-oxidizing bacteria in compost. Soil Sci. Plant Nutr. 54: 529-533. Satoh, K., C. Itoh, and DJ. Kang. 2007. Characteristics of newly isolated ammonia-oxidizing bacteria from acid sulfate soil and the rhizoplane of leucaena grown in that soil. Soil Sci. Plant Nutr. 53: 23-31. Suwa, Y., T. Sumino, and K. Noto. 1997. Phylogenetic relationships of activated sludge isolates of ammonia oxidizers with different sensitivities to ammonium sulfate. J. Genomic Appl. Microbiol. 43: 373–379. Yomura, Y., K. Oyamada, K. Noda, H. Tsuchiya, and Miyazawa. K. 2002. Development of a new biological deodorizing system of ammonium gas. NKK. Report. 178: 81-86.||摘要:||
本研究從以四種處理方式來製作堆肥，將L24、L36、L53及L56四株具有將氨氧化功能的菌株分別添加於蛋雞糞和菇包以1:1比例混合的堆積材料中，進行堆肥化。堆肥化期間量測堆積材料的溫度與氨氣濃度，經腐熟後，堆肥樣品分析其pH、有機質、對種子相對發芽率的影響、水分含量、氮、磷、鉀含量、銨態氮、硝酸態氮、以及有機態氮含量。將不同處理方式製作出來的堆肥分別進行土壤孵育試驗，堆肥樣品以鮮重添加於200g/pot土壤，添加量為每盆添加1g氮素，水分控制在田間容水量的80%，觀察30天後土壤無機氮的礦化情形，將不同處理方式製作出來的堆肥分別加入於500g/pot的土壤中種植莧菜30天觀察其生長情形，測其產量。堆積材料添加L56菌株製造出來的堆肥與化肥以不同比例配合後施入盆栽土壤種植莧菜，經30天後測定植體的鮮重達3.3%。土壤礦化試驗中以堆積材料添加L24菌株與L53菌株能礦化出較多的無機態氮量，分別達到661 mg kg-1與637 mg kg-1。盆栽試驗以L24和L53處理有較高的鮮重產量，分別為18.9 g pot-1與18.2 g pot-1，而添加L56菌株所製作的堆肥與化肥以不同比例配合施入盆栽以添加化肥處理、加入1/2堆肥與1/2化肥及添加1/4堆肥與3/4化肥處理有較高的鮮重產量，分別為20.3g pot-1、19.2g pot-1及19.9g pot-1。
Composting is a general treatment for recycling animal wastes as fertilizers, but it produces a large amount of malodorous gases. Ammonia is a predominantly volatile gas during composting. In addition to causing environmental pollution, odor gases also affect the health of workers of composting factories. This study aimed to reduce ammonia emission during composting layer hen manure via inoculation of ammonia-oxidizing bacteria (AOB). In this study, four strains of AOB, L24, L36, L53 and L56, were isolated from composts. Composting experiments were carried out by mixing the layer hen manure and spent mushroom waste at a ratio of 1:1 (w/w) inoculated with or without the AOB. Analyses of total nitrogen, organic matter, organic nitrogen, P, K, seed germination rate and pH of composting piles were conducted during composting. The nitrogen mineralization rates of the composts were determined by adding 1 g of organic N into 200 g of soil with a water content of 80% field capacity. After incubation for 30 days, the soil inorganic nitrogen was analyzed. Different composts were added to the soil to grow amaranth for 30 days to evaluate their effects on plant growth. In addition, combination of different application rates of chemical fertilizers and the compost added with L56 was performed to determine its effects on amaranth growth. Inoculation of the composting material with L24 significantly reduced ammonia emissions, resulting in a highest N content of 3.30% in its final manure compost. The nitrogen mineralization rates of the composts with L24 and L53 were higher up to 661 and 637 mg kg-1 compared to those of other composts used in this study. The yields of amaranth grown in soils with the composts inoculated with L24 and L53 were 18.9 and 18.2 g pot-1, which were significantly higher than those of the other treatments. The yields of amaranth grown in soils applied with chemical fertilizers alone with, half composts inoculated with L56 and half chemical fertilizers,and with a quarter composts inoculated with L56 and three quarters chemical fertilizers were 20.3g pot-1 and 19.2 g pot-1 and 19.9g pot-1, respectively, which were higher than those of the other treatments. In conclusion, inoculation of layer hen manure mixed with spent mushroom waste with AOB can reduce nitrogen loss via ammonia emission during composting.
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