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Evaluation of micro/nano-materials for aflatoxicosis amelioration and anti-heat stress of Taiwan country chickens
|關鍵字:||雞;微奈米黏土;黃麴毒素;奈米碳酸鈣;蛋品質;Chickens;Micro/nano-clays;Aflatoxins;Nano calcium carbonates;Egg quality||引用:||范揚廣。2012。飼料黴菌毒素防治手冊。行政院農業委員會。台北。台灣。 黃婕婷。2016。微奈米化黏土對細胞與小鼠毒性之評估。碩士論文。中興大學。台中。台灣。 Abdel-Aziem, S. H., A. M. Hassan, and M. A. Abdel-Wahhab. 2011. Dietary supplementation with whey protein and ginseng extract counteracts oxidative stress and DNA damage in rats fed an aflatoxin-contaminated diet. Mutat. Res/ Gen. Tox. En. 723:65-71. Abdel-Wahhab, M. A., E. S. El-Denshary, A. A. El-Nekeety, K. G. Abdel-Wahhab, M. A. Hamzawy, M. F. Elyamany, N. S. Hassan, F. A. Mannaa, M. N. Shaiea, and R. A. Gado. 2015. Efficacy of organo-modified nano montmorillonite to protect against the cumulative health risk of Aflatoxin B1 and ochratoxin A in rats. Soft Nanosci. Lett. 5:21. Adav, S. S., and S. P. Govindwar. 1997. Effects of aflatoxin B1 on liver microsomal enzymes in different strains of chickens. Comp. Biochem. Physiol. C Pharmacol. Toxicol. 118:185-189. Adedara, I., S. Owumi, A. 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黃麴毒素 (aflatoxins) 經常汙染畜禽的飼料原料，造成生長效率不佳，影響生產效益。黏土及沸石材料是複雜且廣泛分佈的鋁矽酸鹽類，因其具可吸附黃麴毒素之物化特性，故廣泛作為飼料添加劑以吸附黴菌毒素。碳酸鈣為蛋殼主要成分，蛋雞於熱緊迫下，碳酸鈣代謝異常，為蛋殼強度不佳的主因。本試驗研究目的為測試飼料添加微奈米黏土作為黴菌毒素吸附劑對紅羽土雞生長性能的影響。試驗二為探討奈米碳酸鈣的添加對夏季土雞抗熱緊迫與蛋品質的影響。試驗一將1日齡的紅羽土雞分為對照組 (CON)、黃麴毒素B1 (AFB1)，AFB1+微奈米黏土 (TB、TBB1或TBI1) 高劑量或低劑量 (1000和200 ppm) 共八組進行11週的飼養試驗。在6週齡之前提供土雞含有100 ppb AFB1的飼料，在隨後的5週中給予含有200 ppb AFB1的飼料。試驗二使用20週齡中興大學選育而成 S 品系台灣土雞100隻，分為對照組 (CON)、飲水高低劑量組 (water inclusion, low and high dose)、飼糧高低劑量組 (dietary inclusion, low and high dose) 共五個處理組，進行為期16週的飼養試驗，期間每兩週測定各組雞隻肛溫、血液pH 值及蛋品質。結果顯示AFB1抑制了紅羽土雞的體增重與飼料效率，同時提高肝臟中氧化壓力與發炎指標；添加高劑量TBI1微奈米黏土提升了土雞的體增重及採食量，進而改善其生長性狀及減少消耗還原態榖胱甘肽。給予TB黏土減少了氧化態穀胱甘肽的生成及促發炎因子介白素-1β (interleukin-1β) 的表現，而添加了TBI1黏土可以降低 Sphingomyelinase、Acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1、Carnitine palmitoyl transferase、Diacylglycerol O-acyltransferase-1 mRNA 的表現。但微奈米化黏土的添加並沒有改善黃麴毒素所引發肝臟三酸甘油脂與丙二醛的堆積，且各組血漿三酸甘油脂及非脂化脂肪酸沒有統計上差異，在肝臟組織病理觀察中各組沒差異，腎臟方面給予低劑量TBB1、TBI1黏土能改善毒素的中毒情況使得腎臟空泡化的情形減少。在蛋雞抗熱緊迫方面，飲水量在各處理組間沒有統計上的差異。飼糧中給予0.1%的奈米碳酸鈣與控制組相比有較低的肛溫，而飲水添加0.1%奈米碳酸鈣組其血液 pH 值相較於對照組有上升的趨勢。飲水中添加0.1%奈米碳酸鈣有最高的蛋殼強度與蛋殼厚度 (P < 0.05)；飲水中添加0.05%的奈米碳酸鈣相較其他組有較重的蛋黃重量 (P < 0.05)。以上結果顯示微奈米黏土未來極有潛力作為商業黴菌毒素吸附劑，而飲水中添加奈米碳酸鈣作為立即額外鈣源可以減緩熱緊迫，補充流失的鈣，提升蛋殼品質。
Aflatoxins are often found in the contaminated crops and feedstuff and thus aflatoxicosis seriously threatens the cost of livestock production. Clays and zeolitic materials are rich with aluminosilicates, which can bind to aflatoxins and thereby are used as a mycotoxin absorbent in feedstuff. The study was designed to examine the effect of micro/nano-clays as a mycotoxin adsorbent on the growth performance and to determine hepatic antioxidative capacity, TG content and inflammatory status and related to gene expression. 1-day-old red-feather Taiwan country chickens. were divided into 8 groups, control (CON), aflatoxin B1 (AFB1), AFB1+micro/nano-clay (TB, TBB1, or TBI1) with a high or low dosage (1000 and 200 ppm) for a feeding trial up to 11 weeks. In the feeding trial, birds were provided with feed containing 100 ppb AFB1 before age of 6 weeks, and then with 200 ppb AFB1 in the following 5 weeks. Besides, It were provided nano calcium carbonates with a high or low dosage (0.1 and 0.05%) in feed and water for a feeding trial up to 16 weeks. examined for their effects on anti-heat stress and egg quality in laying hens. AFB1 suppressed body weight gain and feed efficiency and promoted hepatic oxidative stress and inflammatory status in red-feather Taiwan country chickens. Dietary inclusion of TBI1 at the high dose increased body weight gain , feed intake and GSH content and TB inclusion suppressed hepatic GSSG content and interleukin-1 production, TBI1 inclusion reduced hepatic SMase (sphingomyelinase), ACC-1 (acetyl-CoA carboxylase 1), CPT-1 (carnitine palmitoyl transferase) transcript level, whereas dietary inclusion of any micro/nano-clays failed to ameliorate hepatic TG (triacylglycerol) and MDA (malondialdehyde) accumulation induced by AFB1. No noticeable changes in hepatic histology were observed by AFB1 and micro/nano-clays. In renal histology, the low dose of TBB1 and TBI1 inclusion improved vacuolization by AFB1. In laying hens, there was no statistically significant difference between water intake levels dietary inclusion of 0.1% nano calcium carbonate ameliorated rectal temperature and 0.1% inclusion in drinking water lowered blood pH value (P < 0.05). In egg quality, 0.1% inclusion in drinking water promoted egg shell strength and thickness whereas 0.05% inclusion promoted yolk weight (P < 0.05). In conclusion, micro/nano-clays effectively ameliorate aflatoxicosis and thus are potential as a commercial mycotoxin binder. Supplementation of nano calcium carbonate in drinking water can provide additional and immediate calcium source to replenish the loss of calcium during heat stress and thereby improve the quality of the eggshell.
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