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Effect of different levels of red edible amaranth (Amaranthus tricolor L.) extract as nitrite substitute on the quality of Taiwanese style sausage during storage at 7±2℃
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硝酸鹽及亞硝酸鹽之添加具有幫助肉製品發色、賦予特殊風味、減緩脂肪氧化及抑制微生物生長等功能。硝酸鹽少被使用之原因為硝酸鹽需借助微生物之還原作用才可轉換成亞硝酸鹽，因此作用速度不如直接添加亞硝酸鹽者快。近年來隨著消費者健康意識的抬頭，人工合成之添加劑逐漸不被消費者接受，而以天然原料作為添加劑之來源則較能獲得消費者之認同及喜愛，已知許多蔬菜中含有豐富之硝酸鹽。故本次研究旨在探討以紅莧菜 (Amaranthus tricolor L.) 萃取液取代亞硝酸鹽對台式香腸於冷藏期間品質之影響。
試驗一探討不同醃漬時間與紅莧菜萃取液濃度對香腸肉餅其亞硝酸根殘留量、色澤及感官品評之影響，試驗中將豬瘦絞肉分別與處理C (對照組, 100 ppm亞硝酸鹽)、R1 (2.2% 紅莧菜萃取液添加量=500 ppm硝酸鹽)、R2 (3.3% 紅莧菜萃取液添加量=750 ppm硝酸鹽)、R3 (4.4% 紅莧菜萃取液添加量=1000 ppm硝酸鹽) 及 R4 (5.5% 紅莧菜萃取液添加量=1250 ppm硝酸鹽) 進行混合後，再配合7±2℃下0、24、48及72小時醃漬時間等進行組合配對，共20組，醃漬後之絞肉再以50℃進行3.5小時乾燥。結果顯示：亞硝酸根殘留量方面，除了對照組外其餘處理組皆無檢出；生香腸肉餅色澤方面，所有72小時醃漬處理之L*值皆有低於0小時醃漬處理之趨勢；所有R處理組之a*值除了R1-72處理組有較低之數值，其他R處理組間並無顯著差異但皆與對照組有顯著差異；熟香腸肉餅色澤方面，所有組別之L*值皆有隨著醃漬時間增加而有增高的趨勢，但a*值則所有R處理組皆顯著較對照組為低。生香腸肉餅感官品評之色澤相近度方面，除了R4-0有較低之數值外，其他R處理組間皆無顯著差異，但隨醃漬時間之增加數值呈現先上升後下降之趨勢。試驗二依據試驗一之結果選擇48小時醃漬時間，分別製作C、R1、R2、R3及R4，共5組台式香腸，並於7±2℃儲藏8週下進行品質分析，結果顯示：pH值方面，所有組別之pH值皆隨儲藏時間增加有下降趨勢，而且所有組別於儲藏6週之前皆能維持6.0 pH值以上，且R1及R2處理組於儲藏期間皆與對照組呈現無顯著差異之趨勢；色澤方面，所有R處理組之生或熟香腸L*及a*值中以R1有較高值；脂肪氧化程度方面，所有組別之TBA皆呈現先上升後下降之趨勢，但以R2之差異幅度最小；VBN方面，所有組別皆隨著儲藏時間增加而上升，其中對照組呈現較緩慢上升之趨勢；微生物方面，所有組別之總生菌數及乳酸菌數皆隨著儲藏時間而增加但於儲藏結束時皆小於7 log CFU/g；亞硝酸根殘留量方面，所有R處理組於儲藏第3週以後皆可檢測出，其數值介於0.68-3.54 ppm，但對照組則下降至<1 ppm；感官品評方面，所有R處理組之不論生或熟之色澤、風味、質地及氣味皆以R1處理組有較高數值且與對照組無顯著差異；總接受度方面，於儲藏第8週時亦以R1與對照組呈現無顯著差異，而其他R處理組則皆顯著低於對照組。綜觀上述，紅莧菜萃取液具有潛力作為台式香腸品中之亞硝酸鹽取代物，並且以R1 (2.2%添加量=500 ppm 硝酸鹽) 之紅莧菜萃取液為最適添加量。
Nitrate and nitrite are widely used in curing of meat product because it contributes to develop cured color and special flavor, retard the oxidation of lipid and inhibit the growth of bacteria. Nevertheless, nitrate is seldom used today because it must be reduced to nitrite to be effective by reducing bacteria, which is a slow processing to achieve the same curing properties in meat product. Since consumers get more healthy conceptions, synthetic additives are gradually not accepted by consumers, therefore, natural ingredients are used as additives in food became popular and favorited. A rich source of nitrate come from vegetables such as celery and leek are investigated by many researchers. Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of different levels of red edible amaranth (Amaranthus tricolor L.) extract on the quality of Taiwanese style sausage during refrigerated storage.
Experiment 1 was to investigate effects of different curing time and levels of red edible amaranth (Amaranthus tricolor L.) extract on residual nitrite, color and sensory panel of meat patties. Twenty treatments were consisted of lean meat with different curing mixture such as C (control, 100 ppm nitrite), R1 (2.2% red edible amaranth, 500 ppm nitrate), R2 (3.3% red edible amaranth, 750 ppm nitrate), R3 (4.4% red edible amaranth, 1000 ppm nitrate) and R4 (5.5% red edible amaranth, 1250 ppm nitrate), and different curing time such as 7±2℃ for 0, 24, 48 and 72 h. After curing, all meat patties were dried at 50℃for 3.5 h. The results showed that the residual nitrite, all raw meat patties were detected but no data were got in all treatments except of the control. In color of raw meat patties, all of 72 h curing time treatments had lower L* value than 0 h treatments. Except R1-72 had lower a* value, no significant differences were found among others R treatments, however, all R treatments were significantly different from the control. In L* value of cooked meat patties, all treatments increased with the curing time increasing. In addition, L * value of all R treatments were significant lower than the control. In sensory-color likeness score of raw meat patties, R4-0 had lower value but there were no significantly different among all R treatments. Furthermore, the color likeness score of all treatments showed slightly up and down state curve during storage. In experiment 2, according to the results of experiment 1 five treatments such as C-48 , R1-48, R2-48, R3-48 and R4-48 were selected to prepare Taiwanese style sausage then stored at 7±2℃ for 8 weeks. The results showed that pH value of all groups decrease with the increase of storage time, and R1 as well as R2 were not significantly different compare with the control. However, the pH of all treatments maintained high than 6.0 before storage 6 weeks, In color, L* and a* value of raw and cooked R1 sausage was higher than other R treatments. The degree of lipid oxidation, TBA in all treatments showed slightly up and down curve with the storage time increasing, but R2 had lowest rate. In the change of VBN, that of all groups increased during storage but the control showed a slower rate. In the aspect of microbiological quality, total plate count and lactic acid bacteria count of all groups increased with storage time but there were less than 7 log CFU/g at the end of storage. The residual nitrite of all R treatments were detected and the number was between 0.68-3.45 ppm after 3 weeks, conversely, that of control was lower than 1ppm. In the sensory panel, the scores of color, flavor, texture and odor of R1 had higher values among others R treatments but not significantly different compared with the control. Finally, except of R1 in overall acceptance score was no significant differences with the control, other R treatments were significantly lower than the control during whole storage. In conclusion, red edible amaranth (Amaranthus tricolor L.) extract could provide a potential source of nitrate as nitrite substitute in Taiwanese style sausage, an optimum amount of red edible amaranth extract was R1 (2.2% red edible amaranth, 500 ppm nitrate).
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