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Effects of pork skin gel as fat substitute on the quality of frankfurter sausage during storage at 4℃
|關鍵字:||豬皮;法蘭克福香腸;脂肪取代;pork skin;frankfurter sausage;fat substitute||引用:||周繼發。1987。豬皮膠原蛋白及其化學與素修飾物機能性之研究。國立台灣大學畜牧學研究所博士學位論文。台北，台灣。 周繼發。1991。自鉻鞣豬革廢屑回收膠原蛋白及明膠性質之研究。中國畜牧學會會誌 20 (3): 385-394。 周繼發與王棣。1995。利用豬皮膠原蛋白酵素水解物試製機能性配料之研究。中國畜牧學會會誌24 (3)：345-360。 周繼發與林慶文。1983。豬皮膠原蛋白腸衣之製造 II.豬皮膠原蛋白薄膜之試製。中國農業化學會誌 21 (3/4)：186-190。 周繼發與林慶文。1986。豬皮膠原蛋白的化學與酵素修飾對其機能性之研究 1. 化學磷酸化及其機能性。中國農業化學會誌 24 (1)：37-45。 周繼發與黃瓊慧。1997。利用豬皮與稻米混合物作為中式乾香腸可見脂肪替代物之研究。中國畜牧學會會誌 26(1)：77-86。 林佳緯。2015。利用雞皮生產膠原蛋白及生質柴油。國立中興大學食品暨應用生物科技學系博士學位論文。台中，台灣。 林金鵬。1992。以膠原蛋白、明膠及褐酸鈉製備仿魚翅之研究。國立灣大學食品科技研究所博士學位論文。台北，台灣。 林清銀。1989a。油爆豬皮休閒食品之製造研究：I. 膨脹劑及浸漬時間對油爆豬皮品質之影響。台糖畜研究試驗報告78/79：233-244。 林清銀。1989b。油爆豬皮休閒食品之製造研究：II. 膨脹劑及浸漬時間對油爆豬皮品質之影響。台糖畜研究試驗報告78/79：244-259。 洪偉章、李金枝、陳榮秀。1997。化妝品原料與功能。藝軒圖書出版社。台北，台灣。 洪雅萍。2004。膠原蛋白：膠原蛋白產品的的功效。科學發展 380：30-35。 唐元信。2016。利用明膠化豬皮漿取代瘦肉對台式貢丸於-18℃儲藏期間其品質之影響。國立中興大學動物科學系碩士學位論文。台中，台灣。 財團法人中央畜產會。2017。台灣養豬統計手冊，17。 陳明造。1986。肉品加工理論與應用（修訂版）。藝軒圖書出版社。台北，台灣。 黃加成。1985。熱處理豬皮漿之機能性及其供作香腸乳化結著劑之應用。畜產研究 18 (2)：185-197。 劉登城、陳明造、陳義雄。1990。貢丸製造改進之研究V.不同型式刀片組合對豬肉貢丸品質之影響。中國畜牧學會會誌 19 (1/2)：57-64。 鄭文勝。2006。豬皮明膠之萃取、澄清及應用之研究。國立嘉義大學動物科學系碩士學位論文。嘉義，台灣。 謝葦莙。2005。酸鹼混合液浸漬豬皮生熟狀態理化性狀及乳化性之評估。國立嘉義大學動物科系碩士學位論文。嘉義，台灣。 A.O.A.C. 2003. 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法蘭克福香腸是一種常見之乳化型肉製品，其含有約30-35%之脂肪，被認為是會增加肥胖與罹患心血管疾病之高風險食物。近年來消費者之健康意識抬頭，對於低熱量食品之需求也促使生產者及研究者對低脂肉製品開發的重視，而豬皮為尚未被善加利用的可食性副產物，其含有豐富之膠原蛋白，受加熱後形成明膠，能應用於食品中，許多文獻指出，豬皮經加熱與均質後可製成乳化豬皮漿，具良好之乳化力，若將其應用於法蘭克福香腸中取代部分脂肪，不僅可完全利用豬皮，亦可開發符合健康概念之低脂法蘭克福香腸產品。故本篇研究旨 1) 探討添加不同磷酸鹽及加熱條件對豬皮製成豬皮膠的乳化功能性之影響，2) 探討低脂法蘭克福香腸製作中豬皮膠最佳取代量及其於4℃儲存期間之品質變化。
本研究試驗一將探討加熱條件 (70℃加熱30及60分鐘) 及添加0.3%之不同磷酸鹽 (正磷酸鈉、焦磷酸鈉、三聚磷酸鈉、六偏磷酸鈉及商業多磷酸鈉) 對豬皮膠 (pork gel, PSG) 之一般特性與乳化力之影響。乳化力分析結果發現除了添加焦磷酸鈉之組別顯著低於對照組外，其餘組別皆與對照組無顯著差異，而加熱時間亦對樣品之乳化力無顯著影響；因此第一試驗結果顯示不論加熱時間或添加何種磷酸鹽皆無改善豬皮膠乳化力之效果。試驗二將以豬皮膠分別取代法蘭克福香腸中5%、10%、15%及20%之脂肪，於4℃環境中貯藏8週，觀察其品質變化。結果顯示：以豬皮膠取代脂肪之處理組其貯藏失重與對照組均無顯著差異，但會隨著取代量增加而有降低之趨勢。而所有處理組之脂肪氧化程度皆顯著較對照組為低，且於8週貯藏期間皆維持穩定。微生物分析方面，所有組別之總生菌數及乳酸菌數於8週貯藏期間皆分別小於3 log CFU/g及1 log CFU/g且各組間無顯著差異。感官品評部分，以取代量為5%之處理組有最佳的表現，其於各項感官品評成績上皆與對照組無顯著差異，其餘各組於脆度、質地及總接受度方面隨著取代量之增加有下降趨勢，至最大取代量為20%時，尚可被品評員接受。綜觀上述，將豬皮以70℃加熱60分鐘處理後，可取代法蘭克福香腸中10%之脂肪，其不僅可達到與對照組相同之感官特性，且經8週冷藏存放仍可維持較低之脂肪氧化程度及良好之微生物品質。
sausage is a popular -type meat product, contains 30-35% high level of animal fat, is considered to increase the risk of obesity and cardiovascular diseases. With increase of healthy concern consumers required more healthy foods such as low fat or fat free food products, and accordingly development of low fat/calories products also were pointed as important works by many manufacturers and researchers. Pork is an edible by-product, which is rich in and can be transferred to pork gel (PSG) by heat processing and blending. A research has concluded that PSG possessed good emulsifying capacity, and can be utilized as good protein substitute in meat balls. However, if PSG can be used as fat substitute in sausage (hot dog), the results was not only in prompting of utilization of pork and also developing a low fat of emulsified meat product. Therefore, the aim of this study was to evaluate 1) kinds of phosphate and heating condition on emulsifying capacity of PSG and 2) PSG as fat substitute on the quality of sausage during storage at 4℃.
In experiment 1, PSG was treated with two heating condition (70℃ for 30 and 60 min) and 0.3% of different phosphates (sodium orthophosphate, sodium pyrophosphate, sodium tripolyphosphate, sodium hexametaphosphate and commercial polyphosphate, individually) then the physicochemical properties and emulsifying capacity of PSG was determined to look for an optimum condition. According to the results of emulsifying capacity, except PSG treated with sodium pyrophosphate had the lowest emulsifying capacity, however, no significant differences were found among the others treatments and control. Additionally, the emulsifying capacity of PSGs didn't affected by two heating conditions. Therefore, the optimum condition of PSG was heated at 70℃ for 60 min and added with 0.3% commercial polyphosphate. In experiment 2, PSG was applied in sausage as fat substitute at 5, 10, 15 and 20% of fat individually and final products were stored at 4℃ for 8 weeks and the quality such as microbiological quality, pH, TBARS and sensory panel were determined to set up an optimal fat substitute of PSG level for sausage. The result showed that the purge loss decreased with the increase of PSG level, but no significant differences were found among treatments. All treatments had lower TBARS than the control, and also kept fat oxidation stable during 8-week storage. In the aspect of microbiological quality, total plate count and lactic acid bacteria count of all treatments were less than 3 and 1 log CFU/g separately during whole storage and there is no differences compared with the control. In the sensory panel, all sensory scores of sausage with 5% of fat substitute of PSG was not different from the control. Although, with increase of % fat substitute of PSG, fracturability, texture and total acceptance scores of sausage were decreased. However, the product with 20% fat substitute of PSG were still acceptable by the panelists. In conclusion, an optimum condition for preparation of pork gel was heated at 70℃ for 60 min. Moreover, the optimal amount of fat substitute of PSG for sausage was 10%, which was suitable to produce a reduced-fat sausage due to a stable quality and accepted sensory attributes.
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