Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/96562
標題: 公平貿易能否成為海地咖啡產業的解決方案?
Can Fair Trade Be the Solution for Haitian Coffee Industry?
作者: 諾威森
Wilson Nordesty
關鍵字: 咖啡;海地;公平貿易;農民;消費者;貿易商;購物者(零售商);願付價格;Coffee;Haiti;Fair Trade;Farmer;Consumers;Trader;Retailer;WTP
摘要: 
海地咖啡生產量及出口量在近三十年來持續減少,且咖啡產業在海地歷史上具有重要的地位,因此許多研究也特別關注海地的咖啡產業。近年來咖啡生產量及出口量持續下降影響了海地之環境永續性,亦對於倚賴咖啡文化的海地人們社會經濟及生活層面造成影響。本研究目的為研究影響海地咖啡的生產量及出口量下降之因素,並同時探討公平貿易制度能否成為海地咖啡產業困境的解決方案。本研究於2017年7到8月期間與咖啡農民、貿易商以及咖啡店家進行深度訪談,並透過質化與量化混合研究設計來進行數據蒐集。首先,質性研究部份到Beaumont、Pestel、Roseaux、Baradere、Baptiste、Thiotte、Rendelle和Baradere等咖啡種植區進行深度訪談蒐集質性資料;量化研究則是到Les Cayes和Port-au-Prince地區進行問卷調查並同時進行網路問卷發放。調查總計採訪51戶咖啡農民、15間咖啡店、2處咖啡貿易商及296名消費者。
本研究結果經過驗證發現:(1)海地咖啡農民希望加入公平貿易制度,分析變數包含農民年齡、受教育程度、從事農業的經驗、農場規模、對公平貿易的知識、咖啡文化的經驗以及合作會員。(2)海地咖啡消費者願付出更高的價格來支持在地咖啡農民,分析變數包括性別、年齡、教育程度、家庭規模、每個家庭的人數、月收入、消費習慣以及公平貿易的知識。本研究採用內容分析處理質性研究數據,而t檢定則被用來檢驗假設及平均數比較,最後,透過二元邏輯斯迴歸模型評估影響海地消費者願付價格之因素。
質性研究中咖啡農民訪談結果顯示,海地咖啡產量減少與咖啡農民所面臨嚴峻的永續生產有關聯,若根據在訪談過程中的關鍵字,大約90%的受訪者皆提到生產量下降的議題高度與農民低所得、病蟲害、品質管控、缺乏貸款信用以提供生產要素所需,因此導致農民採取砍伐與販售樹木迅速獲取所得。再者,大部分的咖啡園之咖啡樹也都相較於高齡以致生產力下降,所以海地咖啡產業的下降也被認為是市場通路之限制而進一步導致缺乏技術維持咖啡園的永續性。然而,大部分的受訪農民認為公平貿易系統仍可以是海地咖啡產業解決方案。
又依據受訪之零售商(咖啡店)的訪談紀錄發現,大約57%的咖啡店業者認為海地咖啡生產量的下降是與開發新品種的技術缺乏有關,雖然部分受訪咖啡店業者不認為公平貿易系統是解決方案,但仍有75%的咖啡店業者提到市場通路缺乏導致新整合行銷策略與海地咖啡的在地推廣,但至少為了參與永續維持的海地咖啡產業,他們仍會追隨與遵循公平貿易標示的概念銷售他們的咖啡。
咖啡貿易商則認為造成海地咖啡產業衰退的因素包含缺乏基礎設施,他們提到這與咖啡生產地區的無效率投資政策有關,如農村的交通條件不佳及缺乏生產高品質咖啡豆等相關培訓。咖啡貿易商認為海地咖啡產業需要更好的營運機制,所以咖啡豆的品質才能得以提升,但儘管如此,咖啡貿易商並不認同公平貿易的制度對海地咖啡產業是行得通的解決方案。
而針對海地咖啡消費者而言,研究結果顯示至少91%的海地消費者願意購買海地的公平貿易咖啡,儘管如此,僅有50%的受訪者願意額外多付比一般的咖啡購買成本來購買海地的公平貿易咖啡。整體結果看來,咖啡農民、小零售商(咖啡店業者)以及大部分消費者皆認為公平貿易機制是可作為適當的行銷策略潛在解決海地咖啡產業現況,因此公平貿易機制在海地的執行將需要更多教育在特定部門中使其更加成功。

Haitian coffee industry has faced a decline in production and exports for more than three decades. Given the importance of coffee in the Haiti's history, this fact makes the need to analyze the problems facing the coffee industry obvious and relevant. These challenges have affected not only the environmental sustainability, but also the social life of the Haitian population dependent on the coffee culture. The objectives of this study include investigating the major factors causing for the decline of the Haitian coffee industry. In addition, investigate whether the Fair Trade (FT) system can be one of the potential solutions for Haitian coffee industry. This study was conducted through face-to-face interviews from July to August 2017. The data were collected using the 'mixed method design,' which combines qualitative and quantitative. First, the qualitative samples were collected in Beaumont, Pestel, Roseaux, Baptiste, Thiotte, Rendelle, and Baradère with using the In-Depth interview method. The quantitative samples were collected in Les Cayes and Port-au-Prince. In addition, an online link leading the questionnaire was sent to respondents. A total of 51 coffee producers, 15 coffee retailers, 2 coffee traders and 296 coffee consumers were interviewed. The following hypothesis have been tested in this study: (1) Haitian farmers do want to join the FT system. (2) Coffee consumers in Haiti are willing to support local coffee growers by agreeing to pay higher prices. The 'Content Analysis' was utilized to analyze the qualitative data, while one simple and independent t test were used to test hypotheses and comparison of means. In addition, the binary logistic regression model was used to evaluate the willingness to pay for Haitian consumers.
The qualitative results showed that the decreased production of Haitian coffee is related to the fact that farmers are facing a serious issue in sustainable farming. In terms of key words mentioned during the interview records, about 90% of respondents mentioned the declining production issue that is highly linking to farmers' low income, pest diseases, quality control, lack access of credit to purchase their inputs, and the intense deforestation. Furthermore, the majority of coffee gardens are aged which decreases their yields, so the decline of Haitian coffee industry is also characterized by the lack of access to the market and suitable skills to maintain coffee gardens sustainably. Therefore, most interviewed farmers think that the FT system can be a solution to sustain the Haitian coffee industry. According to the interviewed coffee retailers, about 57% of coffee shoppers think that the decreased production of Haitian coffee is linking to the lack of skills to develop new varieties. However, about 75% of coffee retailers mentioned that the lack of accessibility to the market leads to the lack of the new integrated marketing strategy and the local promotion of Haitian coffee although the interviewed coffee retailers do not really see the solution in FT system. However, they adhere to the idea of selling their coffee under the FT label in order to participate in the sustainable maintenance of the Haitian coffee industry. The results from coffee traders have shown that the decline of the Haitian coffee industry is characterized by the lack of infrastructure. They mentioned that it links to the inefficient investment policy in coffee producing areas, the poor condition of transport in rural areas and the lack of training for the preparation of good quality coffee beans. The traders think that the Haitian coffee industry needs a better operating system, so the quality of coffee bean can be enhanced. However, they do not think the FT system can be a potential solution for the Haitian coffee industry. In addition to coffee consumers in Haiti, the results showed that 91% of Haitian consumers are willing to buy Haitian FT coffee. However, only 50% of the respondent were willing to pay additional price premium for Haitian FT coffee. The overall results of coffee farmers, coffee shoppers, and most consumers have shown that the FT system could be a potential solution for Haitian coffee with proper marketing strategy. Therefore, the implementation of the FT system in Haiti would require more education on specific sectors to be successful.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/96562
Rights: 同意授權瀏覽/列印電子全文服務,2018-06-27起公開。
Appears in Collections:國際農學碩士學位學程

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