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|標題:||Natural regeneration of exotic timber species in Tanzania:a case study at Sao Hill forest plantation
Natural regeneration of exotic timber species in Tanzania:a case study at Sao Hill forest plantation
Daniel Silima Daud
|關鍵字:||natural regeneration;exotic plantation species;invasion;Tanzania;natural regeneration;exotic plantation species;invasion;Tanzania||引用:||5. REFERENCES Binggeli, P. (1989). The ecology of Maesopsis invasion and dynamics of the evergreen forest of the East Usambaras, and their implications for forest conservation and forestry practices. Journal of Disaster Risk Studies, 3, 69–330. Blossey, R. N. B. (2007). Evolution of increased competitive ability in invasive nonindigenous plants: a hypothesis. Journal of Ecology, 83, 887–889. Davis, H. G., Taylor, C.M., & Civille, J.C. (2014). An Allee effect at the front of a plant invasion: Spartina in a Pacific estuary. Journal of Ecology. 92, 321–327. Fernandes, P. (2016). Natural regeneration of Pinus pinaster and Eucalyptus globulus from plantation into adjacent natural habitats. Forest Ecology and Management, 378, 91–102 Garry, J. T. (2005). Surface area of ellipsoid segment. New Zealand Journal of Mathematics. 10, 7–12. Lavi, A. (2005). Invasion of Pinus halepensis from plantations into adjacent natural habitats. Applied Vegetation Science, 8(1), 85–92. Maria, C. C. (2013). Invasive potential of Eucalyptus globulus: Seed dispersal, seedling recruitment and survival in habitats surrounding plantations. Forest Ecology and Management, 305, 129–137. Moran, V. C., Hoffmann, D., Donnelly, B.W., Van W., & Zimmermann, H.G. (2000). Biological control of alien invasive pine species in South Africa. Proceedings of the X International Symposium on Biological Control of Weeds. 94, 19–53. Mhando, M. L., Maliondo, S.M. & Mugasha, A.G. (1993). Early response of Eucalyptus saligna to site preparation and fertilization at Sao-Hill. Forest Ecology and Management. 62, 303–311 Mtuy, M. C. P. (1996). Forest plantation management in Tanzania. Past, Present and Future. Faculty of Forestry, SUA. Record No.63, 4–6. Ngaga, Y. M. (2011). Forest plantations and woodlots in Tanzania. Working paper series of African Forest Forum, Issue 16. 1, 19–31. Rai, P. K. (2015). What makes the plant invasion possible? Paradigm of invasion mechanisms, theories and attributes. Environmental Skeptics and Critics, 4, 4(2), 36–66. Obiri, J. F. (2011). Invasive plant species and their disaster-effects in dry tropical forests and rangelands of Kenya and Tanzania. Disaster Risk Studies, 3, 417–427. Padmanaba, R. T. C. (2014). Minimizing risks of invasive alien plant species in tropical production forest management. Forest ecology, 1982–1998. Rejmanek, M. (1996). A theory of seed plant invasiveness: The first sketch. Biological Conservation, 78(1-2), 171-181. Rejmanek, M. (2000). Plant invasions: the role of mutualisms. Biol Rev Camb Philos Soc, 75(1), 65-93 Richardson, D. M., & Rejmanek, M., (2011). Trees and shrubs as invasive allien species - a grobal view. Diversity and Distribution. 17, 788–809. Richardson, D. M., & Higgins, S.I., (1998). Pines as invaders in the southern hemisphere. In Ecology and biogeography of Pinus. Cambridge University Press. pp. 450–473. Richardson, D.M., & Pyšek, P., (2012). Naturalization of introduced plants: ecological drivers of biogeographical patterns. Ecology, 196, 383–396. SHFP, (2014). Stand age records of planted species at Sao Hill forest palntation Tanzanaia. SHFP, (2015). Rotation records of various species at Sao Hill forest palntation Tanzanaia. Thuiller, W., Richardson, D. M., Pysek, P., Midgley, G. F., Hughes, G. O., & Rouget, M. (2005). Niche-based modelling as a tool for predicting the risk of alien plant invasions at a global scale. Global Change Biology, 11(12), 2234–2250. Tilman, D. ( 1997). Community invasibility, recruitment limitation, and grassland biodiversity. Ecology, 78(1), 81–92. Walker, T. L., Jr., & Hoback, W. W. (2007). Effects of invasive eastern redcedar on capture rates of Nicrophorus americanus and other Silphidae. Environmental Entomology, 36(2), 297–307.||摘要:||
Exotic plantation forests have high biomass and contribute to significant economic impact of many countries in the World. This is due to the fact that the species have an ability to grow very fast in introduced areas compared to many native species. However, they might also escape from plantations through seeds regeneration and spread into natural habitats. Their expansion outside plantation may have huge negative impacts on biodiversity and ecosystem functioning, and thus has become a major concern for many scientists. The major planted species worldwide are eucalyptus, pines and cypress. This study aimed to investigate the regeneration potential of four exotic planted species (i.e., Eucalyptus grandis, Pinus kesiya, Pinus caribaea and Cypress lustanica) at the Sao Hill forest plantation, Tanzania and try to record any evidence of self-regeneration of the species into its adjacent natural areas. The study proposed that: 'if these species can withstand conditions of plantation areas where no prior treatment of soil, watering, or fertilizer applications, may have the potential to have natural regeneration into natural areas upon plantation escape'. The study was done by conducting censuses of all regenerated exotic individuals into both plantation and natural areas. In total, there were 4 districts (with 12 transects). Three line transects were set up at each district. The distance from plantation boundary was 100 m and 200 m in plantation and natural areas, respectively. The study found that the species have self-regenerated and have the potential of becoming invasive. Three species (i.e., Eucalyptus grandis, Pinus kesiya, and Cypress lustanica) were found into both plantations and natural areas, while few individuals of Pinus caribaea were recorded. The results further showed a positive skewness trend of individual recruits towards natural areas. The majority of the individual recruits were found close to the plantation edge. Moreover, results on maximum diameter at breast height (DBH) on individual recruits showed that, individual's diameter in two species (i.e., Eucalyptus grandis, Pinus kesiya,) increased with distance from plantation boundary and thus indicating severe invasive potential. Thus, having seen the successful natural regeneration of the species, this study urges further studies to identify traits of species related to invasion and composition of native forests. Nevertheless, identifying the details of germination ability and processes associated with seeds dispersal, seedling survival and mortality are crucial. The current results of this study can help plantation managers to easily identify fast spreading species into natural areas and thus, take responsible measures of control.
|Appears in Collections:||國際農學碩士學位學程|
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