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Effect of Coating and Some Treatments on the Quality of 'Ponkan' Mandarin (Citrus reticulata Blanco) Fruit
|關鍵字:||包覆;採後壽命;甲殼素;吉貝素;糖酯;二氧化氯;蠟;'Ponkan' Mandarin;Coating;Postharvest Life;Chitosan;Gibberellic Acid;Sugar Ester;Chlorine dioxide;Wax||引用:||Aieta, E. M., and J. D. Berg. 1986. A review of chlorine dioxide in drinking water treatment. J. Am. Water Works Assoc: 62–72. Amarante, C., N. H. Banks, and S. Ganesh. 2001. Relationship between character of skin cover of coated pears and permeance to water vapour and gases. Postharvest Biol. Technol. 21: 291–301. Arpaia, M. L., and I. L. Eaks. 1990. The effect of cultural practices on the postharvest response of navel orange. 23rd Intl. Soc Hort Sci Congr Firenze Italy 27: 678. Baldwin, E. A., J. K. Burns, W. Kazokas, J. K. Brecht, R. D. Hagenmaier, R. J. Bender, and E. Pesis. 1999. Effect of two edible coatings with different permeability characteristics on mango (Mangifera indica L.) ripening during storage. Postharvest Biol. Technol. 17: 215–226. Baldwin, E. A., M. Nisperos-Carriedo, P. E. Shaw, and J. K. Burns. 1995. 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'椪柑'有著特殊甜味和香氣，在台灣和中國南方是重要柑桔類作物，其豐產特性能為農民帶來高收入。本試驗使用五種包覆性材料及八種處理，分別是wax 100X、gibberellic acid 100 ppm、gibberellic acid 1000 ppm、sugar ester 500X、Sugar ester 250X、chitosan 100X、chitosan 50X 及 chlorine dioxide 100X，對照組為蒸餾水。包覆性材料之保護機制不同，如chitosan和wax是形成半透膜；sugar ester和chlorine dioxide具有消毒和殺菌特性；gibberellic acid 和chitosan可以誘導或抑制果實內部之生化反應。上述包覆性材料處理方式皆是將果實浸泡5分鐘。在外銷試驗中，果實保存在1℃中2週後移到12℃中7天，最後放在25℃下回溫3天。在長期貯運試驗中，果實保存在15℃中3個月，每隔1個月移出一批在25℃下回溫3天再進行調查。結果顯示，以chitosan 50X 處理之'椪柑'果實的失重率、寒害、L*、C*、h*、a*值、可滴定酸、可溶性固形物等較佳，但對於防止果實腐敗方面則效果差。gibberellic acid 100 ppm的結果僅次於chitosan 50X，在果梗掉落率、C*、h* 和a*值方面結果較佳，但gibberellic acid 100 ppm及1000 ppm處理的果實寒害較嚴重。以sugar ester 500X處理在失重率、寒害、h*、a*結果較佳，但sugar ester 250X在可滴定酸、L*、C*、a*和b*值效果則較差。以chlorine dioxide 100X 處理之果實在出口試驗和長期貯運試驗中的採後壽命和品質皆下降。另外，在所有試驗中，wax處理對果實之採後品質均無顯著影響。
'Ponkan' mandarin is considered as an important citrus crop in Taiwan and south China, since it obtains sweet and aromatic specialty. Besides, farmers pleasantly gain profit from its price and high productivity. There are 5 coating materials and 8 treatments to be investigated, including the wax 100X, the gibberellic acid 100 ppm, the gibberellic acid 1000 ppm, the sugar ester 500X, the sugar ester 250X, the chitosan 100X, the chitosan 50X, the chlorine dioxide 100X, and the water as the control. Material's mechanisms are very diverse, such as the chitosan and the wax form permeable layer, the sugar ester and chlorine dioxide acquire sanitization and cleansing property, the gibberellic acid and chitosan induce or suppress the regulating chemical within the fruit. Those coating materials were applied as dipping method, which the fruits were dipped in their solution for 5 minutes. There are two different purposes of experiment. For the exporting experiment, the fruit materials were stored under low temperature as low as 1 ˚C for 2 weeks, then moved to 12 ˚C for 7 days, then finally moved to 25 ˚C for 3 days. For the long-storage experiment, the fruit materials were stored at 15 ˚C consistently for 3 months, while each month samples were moved for another investigation at 25˚C storage for 3 days. The best coating material for both experiments were the chitosan 50X, which provided the positive results on the weight loss, chilling injury L*, C*, h*, a* coloration values, TA, and TSS but had one negative result on the decay. The the gibberellic acid 100 ppm provided the second best results on the long-storage experiment on the results of the pedicel drop, C*, h*, and a* coloration value, but for the exporting experiment both concentrations of the gibberellic acid provided severe chilling injury to the 'Ponkan' mandarin. For the sugar ester, it only provided the positive result on the exporting experiment in the result of weight loss, chilling injury, h*, a* coloration values, at 500X, but on the long-storage experiment it provided the negative results on the TA, L*, C*, a*, and b* coloration values, at 250X. The chlorine dioxide worsened the 'Ponkan' mandarin postharvest life and quality on both experiments. Whereas, the wax's results were not statistically distinct on any experiment.
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