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標題: 利用主機端提示的寫入緩衝區管理方法
Host-hinted Write Buffer Management Scheme
作者: 李仁傑
Ren-Jie Lee
關鍵字: 固態硬碟;寫入緩衝;分頁快取記憶體;SSD;Write buffer;Page cache
引用: 參考文獻 [1] H. Jo, J.-U. Kang, S.-Y. Park, J.-S. Kim, and J. Lee, “FAB: Flash-aware buffer management policy for portable media players,” IEEE Trans. Consumer Electron., vol. 52, no. 2, pp. 485–493, May 2006. [2] H. Kim and S. Ahn, “BPLRU: A buffer management scheme for improving random writes in flash storage,” in Proc. 6th USENIX Conf. File Storage Technol., 2008, pp. 1–14. [3] S.-Y. Park, D. Jung, J.-U. Kang, J.-S. Kim, and J. Lee, “CFLRU: A replacement algorithm for flash memory,” in Proc. Int. Conf. Compil., Arch. Synth. Embed. Syst., 2006, pp. 234–241. [4] J. Seol, H. Shim, J. Kim, and S. Maeng, “A buffer replacement algorithm exploiting multi-chip parallelism in solid state disks,” in Proc. Int. Conf. Compil., Arch., Synth. Embed. Syst., 2009, pp. 137–146. [5] Wu, Guanying, Xubin He, and Ben Eckart. 'An adaptive write buffer management scheme for flash-based ssds.' ACM Transactions on Storage (TOS) 8.1 (2012). [6] L. Shi, C. J. Xue, and X. Zhou, “Cooperating write buffer cache and virtual memory management for flash memory based systems,” in Proc. 17th IEEE Real-Time Embed. Technol. Appl. Symp., Apr. 2011, pp. 147– 156. [7] 'DiskSim,' [8] L. Shi, J. Li, C. J. Xue, C. Yang, and X. Zhou, “EXLRU: A unified write buffer cache management for flash memory,” in Proc. ACM Int. Conf. Embed. Softw., 2011, pp. 339–348. [9] J.S Park, H.K Bahn and K. Koh, 'Buffer Cache Management for Combined MLC and SLC Flash Memories Using both Volatile and Nonvolatile RAMs', IEEE International Conference on Embedded and Real-Time Computing Systems and Applications, pp.228-235, 2009. [10] N. Megiddo, D.S. Modha, ARC: a self-tuning, low overhead replacement cache,in: Proc. the Second USENIX Conference on File and Storage Technologies (FAST),Mar.-Apr.2003. [11] Understanding the Linux Kernel,3rd Edition: [12] Z. Li, P. Jin, X. Su, K. Cui, and L. Yue, “CCF-LRU: A new buffer replacement algorithm for flash memory,” IEEE Trans. Consumer Electron., vol. 55, no. 3, pp. 1351–1359, Aug. 2009. [13] J. Seol, H. Shim, J. Kim, and S. Maeng, “A buffer replacement algorithm exploiting multi-chip parallelism in solid state disks,” in Proc. Int. Conf. Compil., Arch., Synth. Embed. Syst., 2009, pp. 137–146. [14] Extending SSD Simulator to Support Shared Channel between Packages International Journal of Applied Engineering Research ISSN 0973-4562 Volume 11, Number 6 (2016) pp 3915-3919. [15] NADN flash memory and NOR flash memory : [16] Porkumaran Karantharaj and Arul Selvan Ramasamy RFFE: A Buffer Cache Management Algorithm for Flash-Memory-Based SSD to Improve Write Performance , in Proc IEEE. VOL. 38, NO. 3, SUMMER 2015
最近,以 NAND flash memory 為基礎的SSD 正快速的發展,其優點具有體積小、重量輕、抗震性佳、低耗電量。但同時NAND flash memory存在著一些缺點,例如,讀取與寫入速度不均、無法原地更新資料、寫入/抹除次數有限,而這些缺點明顯地都跟「寫入」的動作有關,進而造成NAND flash memory的效能表現不佳。

為了改善SSD的寫入效能,一個方法是在SSD內部加入一塊RAM,我們稱之為write buffer,對於經常被存取的熱門資料可以直接在write buffer進行資料的更新,減少對NAND flash memory的寫入動作。本論文提出了Host-hinted Write Buffer Management Scheme,藉由主機端的提示將相關的資訊傳達給device端,透過跨階層(host與device)合作,藉由分享資訊,達到提升整體效能的目的。

以往資料被寫入write buffer只侷限當page cache發生replacement,在本論文中,我們同時考慮Page cache的replacement以及Linux flush機制[11]對於資料寫入write buffer的影響,當write buffer空間不足需要選擇踢除資料時,參考page cache提供的資訊,協助write buffer在執行置換策略時能更精確地選擇踢除的資料。從實驗結果顯示,我們的方法可以成功提升write buffer的hit ratio與減少寫入flash memory的次數。

Recently, NAND flash memory-based SSD is developing rapidly. It has many advantages such as small size, light weight, high shock resistance, low power consumption. However, due to certain physical characteristic of NAND flash memory, it has the asymmetric speed of read and write operations, inability to in-place updates, limited number of write and erase times, and these disadvantages are clearly related to the action of writing, thus resulting in poor performance of NAND flash memory.

To address the issue, one of the methods is adding a piece of RAM, which is known as write buffer, in SSDs. Consequently, we can update the hot data in the write buffer directly, so as to eliminate the frequencies of writing to NAND flash memory. In this these, we propose a Host-hinted Write Buffer Management Scheme. By exploiting the cross-layer information, we convey the related host information to the device to improve the performance of the whole system.

Previously, data is written to the write buffer only when the data is replaced in page cache. In the thesis, we simultaneously considers the replacement the Linux flush operation in page cache to the impact the write buffer management. Specially, when the write buffer is full and needs to select a victim block for replacement, we utilizes the information passed from the page cache to help the write buffer to select the most appropriate victim block for replacement. From the experimental results, our proposed scheme can successfully increase the hit ratio of write buffer and reduce the number of write operations to the flash memory.
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