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標題: 一種先進的電動自行車無感測器剎驅一體控制系統
An Advanced Sensorless Integrated Driving and Braking Control System for Electric Bikes
作者: 陳恩平
En-Ping Chen
關鍵字: 占空比;脈衝寬度調變效應;無感測器電磁剎車系統;防鎖死剎車;馬達反電動勢;Duty Cycle;Pulse Width Modulation;Sensorless Electromagnetic Braking System;Anti-lock Braking System;Back Electromotive Force
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[8] Chen Yiguang, Lv Xiaowei and Shen Yonghuan, “Analysis of three-phase short circuit for dual-redundancy PMSM with low thermal coupling and non-electromagnetic coupling between windings,” 18th International Conference on Electrical Machines and Systems (ICEMS), pp. 1434-1438, 2015. [9] F. Naseri, E. Farjah and T. Ghanbari, “An efficient regenerative braking system based on battery/supercapacitor for electric, hybrid, and plug-in hybrid electric vehicles with BLDC motor,” IEEE Transactions on Vehicular Technology, vol. 66, no. 5, 2017. [10] Y. Min, B. Zhifeng and C. Binggang, “Robust H2/H-infinity control for regenerative braking of electric vehicles,” IEEE International Conference on Control and Automation, pp. 1366-1370, 2007. [11] M. J. Yang, H. L. Jhou, B. Y. Ma and K. K. Shyu, “A cost-effective method of electric brake with energy regeneration for electric vehicles,” IEEE Transactions on Industrial Electronics, vol. 56, pp. 2203-2212, 2009. 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Lin, “ABS control design for two-wheel drive electric vehicles,” IEEE International Conference on Mechanic Automation and Control Engineering (MACE), pp. 1011-1014, 2011. [17] Pradeep Kumar, Sandeep Dhundhara and Ruchi Makin, “Performance analysis of PMSM drive based on FOC technique with and without MRAS method,” International Conference on Recent Advances and Innovations in Engineering (ICRAIE), pp. 1-6, 2016. [18] M. Abassi, A. Khlaief, O. Saadaoui, A. Chaari and M. Boussak, “Performance analysis of FOC and DTC for PMSM drives using SVPWM technique,” 16th International Conference on Sciences and Techniques of Automatic Control and Computer Engineering (STA), pp. 228-233, 2015. [19] L. Zhang, C. Wathanasarn and F. Hardan, “An efficient microprocessor-based pulse-width modulator using space vector modulation strategy,” 20th International Conference on Industrial Electronics, Control and Instrumentation (IECON), pp. 91-96, 1994. 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本論文旨為開發一種無感測器之電磁剎車控制系統,該系統運用磁場導向控制技術(Field Oriented Control; FOC)將驅動與剎車單元整合於一個控制器上,並加入防鎖死剎車系統(Anti-lock Braking System; ABS),使剎車效果能保持在最佳的性能。永磁無刷同步馬達的驅動與剎車控制已經完成,並將其應用於電動自行車上。關於剎車部分,本文開發了一種具有較大剎車力道之電磁反轉剎車系統,而該電磁剎車可以透過改變脈衝寬度調變效應(Pulse Width Modulation; PWM)的占空比(Duty Cycle)大小,來調整驅動級晶體的開關狀態以調整制動力。此外,由於本文所提出之電磁剎車系統所需的制動能量僅僅與馬達內部所產生之反電動勢(back-EMF)有關,故亦可讓騎乘者自行決定剎車力量的強度,或是在較高速度時能確實剎停,此設計更可確保行車安全性。所提出的系統已實際實現於一商用電動自行車,並且已經通過實驗驗證,效果十分良好。

This thesis aims to develop a sensorless electromagnetic braking control system that uses Field Oriented Control (FOC) to integrate the driving and braking units into a single controller. With the application of anti-lock braking system (ABS), the braking effect can be maintained at the best performance. The control of drive and brake of permanent magnet brushless synchronous motors had been completed and applied to electric bikes. For the braking section, an electromagnetic reversely braking system having a larger braking force is developed which can change the switching state of the MOSFETs by alternating the duty cycle of pulse width modulation (PWM) to adjust the braking force. In addition, since the braking energy required for the electromagnetic braking system proposed here is related only to the back electromotive force (back-EMF) generated inside the motor, riders can determine the strength of the braking force by themselves or electric bike can be actually stopped at a higher speed for the safety design of driving. The proposed integrated sensorless driving and electromagnetic braking system have been practically realized, the results have been verified by experiments and the effect is good.
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