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標題: 臺灣釣客對墾丁珊瑚礁保育之偏好
Anglers'' Preferences for the Conservation of Coral Reefs in Kenting National Park
作者: 吳冠勳
Guan-Xin Wu
關鍵字: 選擇實驗法;珊瑚礁;釣客;願付價格;Choice Experiment;Coral Reefs;Anglers;Willingness-to-pay
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珊瑚礁為生物多樣性最豐富的生態體系之一,除了對海洋生態平衡極為重要之外,珊瑚礁在人類的社會、經濟、文化及醫療等方面亦有極大的貢獻。全球有超過一百個國家的海岸擁有珊瑚礁,而臺灣在氣候及地理位置方面得天獨厚,具有全世界1/3的珊瑚礁種類,其中,以恆春半島與離島等地區最為豐富。由於我國墾丁地區擁有豐富的海洋資源,吸引為數眾多的釣客前往從事垂釣活動,但釣魚活動對海洋環境可能產生的負面影響卻容易被忽略,相關釣客管理制度推動腳步緩慢。考量世界各地的珊瑚礁生態正面臨退化的問題,而臺灣的墾丁地區亦不例外,制定珊瑚礁的保育政策以減少人為干擾是維護海洋資源永續發展的重要工作。故本文以釣客為研究對象,探討其對墾丁珊瑚礁永續生存管理方案之偏好。研究方法採用選擇實驗法(Choice experiment method, CE),藉由面訪問卷的調查方式探討受訪釣客對保育墾丁珊瑚礁的偏好,並透過多元羅吉特模型分別估算「釣魚人數管制」、「禁漁措施」、「海洋保育警察」以及「岸內垂釣點管制」等屬性的願付價格。

Coral reefs are one of the most diverse biological resourcesof ecosystems. Beside playing a key role in the marine ecosystem balance, coral reefs are also important in social, economic and medicalsectors. More than 100 countries have coastlines with coral reefs. Taiwan has about 1/3 coral reefs species in the world due to its location and suitable climate. Kenting and offshore islands are the most abundant areas in Taiwan. A lot of angling activities in Kenting is due to its rich marine resources. But the negative impact of recreational fishing is often neglected. Relative regulatory programs are barely promoted. Considering the global trend of coral reefs degradation, it is important to make series of conservation policies. Therefore, the aim of this study is to investigate anglers'' preferences and willingness-to-pay (WTP) for conservation of coral reefs in Kenting National Park. Choice experiment method is used in this study. This research collected data about respondents'' preferences of conservation of coral reefs by face-to-face questionnaire. Multinomial logit model is employed to estimate the WTP for different conservation regulations of coral reefs such as capacity control of anglers, closed seasons, marine polices, and fishing spots.
The empirical results showed that respondents prefer conservation policies such as capacity control of anglers, expanding closed seasons, and setting up marine polices. However, the conservation policy for increase or decrease fishing spots was non-significant. The WTP for setting up marine polices received the highest value and anglers will overpay NT$464.5 per year. Moreover, respondents were willing to pay NT$278.44 per year and NT$145.88 per year for capacity control of anglers and expanding closed seasons respectively. Results from socio-economic characteristics indicated that retired respondents prefer a lower WTP premium for decreasing fishing spots, and anglers with higherinvestment for fishing rod were willing to pay more for all coral reefs conservation policies. The responses from anglers with different socio-economic characteristics revealeddifferences in preferences and WTP for conservation of coral reefs.
The results of this study demonstrate the preferences and WTP of respondents who once fished in Kenting for improvement to coral reefs status.These results could be a tool to assist public policy makers to improve conservation regulation of marine resources.
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