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標題: 應用Hairsine-Rose模型於人工降雨實驗之土壤流失量評估
Assessment of soil loss in rainfall simulator experiments using Hairsine-Rose model
作者: 賴俊辰
Chun-Chen Lai
關鍵字: 土壤沖蝕;雷射掃描;Hairsine-Rose Model;系統動力學;降雨模擬;Soil erosion;Laser scanning;Hairsine-Rose Model;System dymanic;Rainfall simulation
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第二部分則是根據系統動力學建置土壤沖蝕的模型,主要是參考Hairsine-Rose Model的物理方程式,以系統動力學軟體Stella建立模型,並使用實驗的資料進行率定和驗證,若是實驗沒有的數據則參考前人的文獻,將模型所得出的土壤沖蝕量與實驗收集的土壤沖蝕量進行比較,可以發現在高坡度下擬合的結果較為理想,至於低坡度時則會有較大的偏差發生,可能造成的原因為模型中並沒有考慮到入滲所產生的影響。再對調整的參數J(土壤基質抗徑流對土壤產生捲起之能力)、F(超過門檻值之河川功率實際對土壤造成影響的比率)、ThresholdSP(河川功率造成土壤沖蝕的門檻值)、OriSoilDetach(原始表土之離散能力)、DepoLayerDetach(沉積層之離散能力)進行敏感度分析,可以得到各坡度之主要影響土壤沖蝕量的參數。

The mudstone area in southern Taiwan is vulnerable to rainfall and runoff erosion due to its soft soil texture, which leads to reservoir siltation. The soil used in this study is the mudstone sedimentary soil collected from the watershed of the Agongdian Reservoir, and used the soil to conduct the rainfall simulation experiment, and recorded. the topography changes by laser scanning. The purpose is to study the process of soil erosion, and to build the model according to the data collected by the experiment and the previous literature.
The research has two parts, the first part is the laboratory soil erosion experiment with a rainfall simulator. The soil was filled the erosion flume which is 0.75m*0.25m*0.15m.The soil erosion experiment were conducted under same rainfall intensity but different slope gradients. There are 6 slope gradients(30、25、20、15、10、5), experiment trails of each slope were repeated two times and the rainfall duration is thirty minutes. During simulation experiment, outflow of the flume was collected at intervals of 5 minutes. Meanwhile, the laser scanning technique was applied at every 5 minutes when rainfall was stopped temperately. The result of this part was found that the sediment yield by estimated by laser scanned topography is large than the collected sediment yields. However, the trend is the same, both the estimated and collected sediment yields increased as the slope increased.
The Second part is construction of a process-based soil erosion model based on System Dynamics method using STELLA, a system dynamic software. The model was based on the physical equations proposed in Hairsine-Rose Model, and used the rainfall simulator experiment data for model calibration and verification. The results of comparison between the sediment yields estimated by the model and measured from the experiment show that the deviations in steep slope trials were lower than that of the mild slope trials. The deviations may be attributed to that the model didn't consider the influence of infiltration. From sensitivity analysis of parameters, we investigated the influential parameters among J(the specific energy of entrainment)、F(the fraction of excess stream power effective in entrainment and re-entrainment)、ThresholdSP(threshold stream power)、OriSoilDetach(detachability of the original soil)、DepoLayerDetach(detachability of the deposited layer) of soil erosion prediction.
The research results are (1) the quantitative formula for converting the soil erosion volume of DEM data into soil erosion weight; (2) the relationship between soil erosion amount and rainfall duration and slope; (3) the preliminary results of a system dynamics model that can predict the amount of soil erosion is constructed.
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