Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/97697
標題: 創傷與文化記憶在路易絲•厄德里奇的《圓屋》
Trauma and Cultural Memory in Louise Erdrich's The Round House
作者: 廖翊君
Yi-Chun Liao
關鍵字: 路易絲•厄德里奇;瓦爾特•班雅明;凱西•卡路絲;口傳故事;歷史創傷;Louise Erdrich;Walter Benjamin;Cathy Caruth;oral storytelling;historical trauma
引用: Agamben, Giorgio. Remnants of Auschwitz: the Witness and the Archive. Trans. Daniel Heller-Roazen. New York: Zone Books, 1999, p. 17. Print. Amnesty International. Maze of Injustice: the Failure to Protect Indigenous Women from Sexual Violence in the USA. New York: Amnesty International Publications, 2007. Print. 'Animism.' New World Encyclopedia. Web. 21 February 2017. <http://www.newworldencyclopedia.org/entry/Animism >. Belsey, Catherine, 'Constructing the Subject: Deconstructing the Text.' Feminisms: an Anthology of Literary Theory and Criticism. Ed. Robyn Warhol and Diane Herndi. New Brunswick: Rutgers UP, 1997, pp. 657–73. Print. Benjamin, Walter. Illuminations: Essays and Reflections. Trans. Harry Zohn. Ed. Hannah Arendt. New York: Schocken Books, 1969. Print. ---. The Arcades Project. Trans. Howard Eliland and Kevin McLaughlin. Cambridge: The Belknap Press of Harvard University Press, 2002. Print. ---. 'The Storyteller: Reflections on the Works of Nikolai Leskov.' The Novel: an Anthology of Criticism and Theory 1900-2000. Ed. Dorothy J. Hale. Malden: Blackwell, 2006, pp. 361–78. Print. Bird-David, Nurit. 'Animism' Revisited: Personhood, Environment, and Relational Epistemology.' Current Anthropology, vol. 40, no. S1, 1999, pp. 67–91. Print. Boes, Tobias. 'Beyond the Bildungsroman: Character Development and Communal Legitimation in the Early Fiction of Joseph Conrad.' Conradiana, vol. 39, no. 2, 2007, pp. 113–34., doi:10.1353/cnd.2007.0014. Brave Heart, Maria Yellow Horse. 'The Historical Trauma Response among Natives and Its Relationship to Substance Abuse: a Lakota Illustration.' Healing and Mental Health for Native Americans: Speaking in Red. Ed. Ethan Nebelkopf and Mary Phillips. Walnut Creek, CA: AltaMira Press, 2004, pp. 7–18. Print. Caruth, Cathy. Unclaimed Experience: Trauma, Narrative, and History. Johns Hopkins University Press, 1996. Print. ---. 'Parting Words: Trauma, Silence, and Survival.' intervalla: platform for intellectual exchange, vol. 2, 2014, pp. 20–33. Print. Cohen, Felix S. Felix S. Cohen's Handbook of Federal Indian Law. Albuquerque: University of New Mexico Press, 1941. Print. Emberley, Julia V. 'The Storyteller, the Witness and the Novel: Louise Erdrich's Tracks.' The Testimonial Uncanny: Indigenous Storytelling, Knowledge, and Reparative Practices, State University of New York Press, 2014, pp. 213–29. Print. Erdrich, Louise. Conversations with Louise Erdrich and Michael Dorris. Ed. Allan Chavkin and Nancy Feyl Chavkin. Jackson: University Press of Mississippi, 1994. Print. ---. Jacklight: Poems. London: Flamingo, 1996. Print. ---. Love Medicine. New York: Harper Perennial, 2009. Print. ---. The Antelope Wife: a Novel. New York: Harper Perennial, 2012. Print. ---. The Round House. New York: Harper Perennial, 2012. Print. ---. Tracks. New York: Henry Holt, 1988. Print. Faulkner, William. Absalom, Absalom! New York: Vintage International, 1936. Print. ---. As I Lay Dying. New York: Vintage International, 1990. Print. Feitosa, Alisha Stafford. Beyond Good and Evil: Sister Leopolda's Traumatic Will to Power. MA Thesis. The University of Texas at Arlington, 2007, pp. 3–7. Print. Freud, Sigmund. Moses and Monotheism. Trans. Katberine Jones. New York: Vintage Books, 1967. Print. ---. The Interpretation of Dreams. Trans. James Strachey. New York: Basic Books, 1995. Print. ---. Totem and Taboo: Resemblances between the Psychic Lives of Savages and Neurotics. Trans. A. A. Brill. London: George Routledge & Sons, 1919. Print. Fuller, Molly. 'Border Transgression, Adolescent Transition, and the Quest for Justice in Louise Erdrich's The Round House.' Community Boundaries and Border Crossings: Critical Essays on Ethnic Women Writers. Ed. Kristen Lillvis et al. London: Lexington Books, 2017, pp. 37–46. Print. Gallego, Mar. 'Female Identity and Storytelling in Louise Erdrich's Tracks and Amy Tan's The Joy Luck Club.' Philologia Hispalensis, vol. 13, no. 2, 1999, pp. 131–37. Print. Givoni, Michal. 'Witnessing / Testimony.' Mafte'akh, vol. 2, 2011, pp. 147–69. Print. Goethe, Johann Wolfgang von. Wilhelm Meister's Apprenticeship. Ed. Charles William Eliot. 2001. Web. 23 January 2018. <Bartleby.com>. Gonzales, Alberto R., et al. 'Public Law 280 and Law Enforcement in Indian Country — Research Priorities.' National Institute of Justice, U.S. Department of Justice, 2005. Web. 5 August 2017. <http://www.ojp.usdoj.gov/nij>. Goodhart, Sandor. 'The Witness of Trauma: a Review Essay.' Modern Judaism, vol. 12, no. 2, 1992, pp. 203–17., doi:10.1093/mj/12.2.203. Halliday, Lisa. 'Louise Erdrich, the Art of Fiction No. 208.' The Paris Review, 2010. Web. 20 May 2018. <https://www.theparisreview.org>. Hallowell, Alfred Irving. 'Ojibwa Ontology, Behavior, and World View.' Culture in History: Essays in Honor of Paul Radin. Ed. Stanley Diamond. New York: Columbia University Press, 1960, pp. 17–49. Print. ---. Culture and Experience. University of Pennsylvania Press, 1995. Print. Hansen, Miriam. 'Benjamin, Cinema and Experience: 'The Blue Flower in the Land of Technology.' New German Critique, no. 40, 1987, pp. 179–224., doi:10.2307/488138. Ingold, Tim. 'A Circumpolar Night′s Dream.' Figured Worlds: Ontological Obstacles in Intercultural Relations. Ed. John Clammer et al. University of Toronto Press, 2004, pp. 25–57. Print. Jacobs, Connie A. 'I knew there never was another Martyr like me': Pauline Puyat, Historical Trauma and Tracks.' Louise Erdrich: Tracks, The Last Report on the Miracles at Little No Horse, The Plague of Doves. Ed. Deborah L. Madsen. Continuum, 2011, pp. 34–47. Print. Jervis, John. Sympathetic Sentiments: Affect, Emotion and Spectacle in the Modern World. London: Bloomsbury, 2015, p. 171. Print. Laub, Dori. 'Bearing Witness, or the Vicissitudes of Listening.' Testimony: Crises of Witnessing in Literature, Psychoanalysis, and History. Ed. Dori Laub and Shoshana Felman. New York: Routledge, 1992, pp. 57–74. Print. ---. 'Truth and Testimony: the Process and the Struggle.' Trauma: Explorations in Memory. Ed. Cathy Caruth. The Johns Hopkins University Press, 1995, pp. 61–75. Print. Lincoln, Kenneth. Native American Renaissance. Berkeley: University of California, 1985, pp. 222–50. Print. Mambrol, Nasrullah. 'Analysis of Louise Erdrich's Novels.' 1 June 2018. Web. 20 June 2018. <https://literariness.org/2018/06/01/analysis-of-louise-erdrichs-novels/>. Ma Kwok Ming. Walter Benjamin. San Min Book co., Ltd, 2009. Print. Martini, Fritz. 'Bildungsroman Term and Theory.' Reflection and Action: Essays on the Bildungsroman. Ed. James N. Hardin. University of South Carolina Press, 1991, pp. 1–25. Print. McCole, John. Walter Benjamin and the Antinomies of Tradition. New York: Cornell University Press, 1993, p. 259. Print. Moretti, Franco. The Way of the World: the Bildungsroman in European Culture. London: Verso, 1987, pp. 4–67. Print. PBS NewsHour. 'Conversation: Louise Erdrich on Her New Novel, 'The Round House.' 19 October 2012. Web. 12 January 2017. < https://www.pbs.org/newshour/arts>. Prairie Public Broadcasting. 'Read North Dakota Presents; a Conversation with Louise Erdrich (2012).' Youtube, LLC, 20 September 2012. Web. 4 April 2018. < https://youtu.be/yWI32GHB4so>. Proust, Marcel. 1981 [1992]. In Search of Lost Time, Vol. 1: Swann's Way. Trans. C. K. Scott Moncrieff and Terence Kilmartin. Rev. D. J. Enright. New York: Modern Library. Print. Richter, Gerhard. Walter Benjamin and the Corpus of Autobiography. Wayne State University Press, 2002, p. 190. Print. Robson, Kathryn. Writing Wounds: the Inscription of Trauma in Post-1968 French Women's Life-Writing. Rodopi, 2004. Print. Secco, Anna. 'The Search for Origins through Storytelling in Native American Literature: Momaday, Silko, Erdrich.' RSA Journal, vol. 3, 1993, pp. 59–71. Print. Sergi, Jennifer. 'Storytelling: Tradition and Preservation in Louise Erdrich's Tracks.' World Literature Today, vol. 66, no. 2, 1992, pp. 279–82., doi:10.2307/40148133. Sium, Aman and Eric Ritskes. 'Speaking Truth to Power: Indigenous Storytelling as an Act of Living Resistance.' Decolonization: Indigeneity, Education & Society, vol. 2, no. 1, 2013, pp. I–X. Print. Stookey, Lorena Laura. Louise Erdrich: a Critical Companion. London: Greenwood Press, 1999. 13–14. Print. Stratton, Billy J., and Frances Washburn. 'The Peoplehood Matrix: a New Theory for American Indian Literature.' Wicazo Sa Review, vol. 23, no. 1, 2008, pp. 51–72. Print. Tang, Amy Cynthia. Repetition and Race: Asian American Literature after Multiculturalism. Oxford University Press, 2016, p. 49. Print. Tranter, Rhys. Ill Seen Ill Said: Trauma, Representation and Subjectivity in Samuel Beckett's Post-War Writing. Ph. D Thesis. Cardiff University, 2014, pp. 71–72. Print. 'Trauma.' The Cambridge Dictionary of Psychology. Ed. David Matsumoto. Cambridge University Press, 2009, p. 552. Print. Ulrich, George. Unforgiving Remembrance: the Concept and Practice of Eingedenken in Walter Benjamin's Late Work. Ph. D Thesis. University of Toronto, 2001, pp. 202–06. Print. Weinbaun, Alys Eve. 'Ways of Not Seeing: (En)gendered Optics in Benjamin, Baudelaire, and Freud.' Loss: The Politics of Mourning. Ed. David L. Eng, David Kazanjian and Judith Butler. London: University of California Press, 2003, p. 401. Print. Winnie, Cynthia, and S. Christina Rebecca. 'Social and Cultural Defiance: Re-Building of Native American Identity in Louise Erdrich's Tracks.' Quest Journals Journal of Research in Humanities and Social Science, vol. 5, no. 9, 2017, pp. 23–27. Print.
摘要: 
在《圓屋》當中,路易絲•厄德里奇以一個奧吉布瓦族女人杰拉丁•考茨的強暴案做為小說的開場。為了治療杰拉丁的創傷,她的兒子喬開始尋找正義,但卻發現他所信賴的聯邦法竟然無法解決問題。此外,喬也了解到看似只是偶發的單一事件,事實上卻和奧吉布瓦族的歷史創傷有關。

本文主要分為兩個章節以及導論和結論。導論簡介文獻回顧、本文的主要論點和本文架構。第一章要探討的是《圓屋》的萬物有靈論、口傳故事及歷史創傷。藉由萬物有靈論及說故事理論的輔助下,我將檢視幕蓀利用神話故事,揭露了萬物有靈論對奧布吉瓦族的重要性,同時也顯現出圓屋的神聖性。不僅如此,幕蓀的神話故事中也揭露出那段奧布吉瓦族被美國政府壓迫的歷史。此外,透過瑪麗亞•耶羅•霍而斯•伯瑞絲•哈特的歷史創傷理論,我發現杰拉丁的強暴案顯露出奧布吉瓦族的歷史創傷對後代的影響。在第二章,我將利用凱西•卡路絲的創傷理論及瓦爾特•班雅明的記憶理論去剖析杰拉丁的強暴案和其他角色之間複雜的關係。喬對角色創傷經驗的敘述,讓我了解創傷不僅是個人的,也是集體的。也就是說,厄德里奇之所以安排杰拉丁的強暴案是為了與其他角色的創傷經驗彼此串聯起來。這也讓我發現到奧布吉瓦族的人民不僅遭受到不同類型的暴力,他們的創傷經歷也深深影響喬。此外,藉由朵力•勞伯的見證理論,也顯現出喬具有見證人及倖存者的雙重身分。因此在敘述杰拉丁強暴案的同時,喬也在敘述自己受到的創傷及殺害強暴犯林登拉克的愧疚感。但是,喬了解殺人並無法解決問題,所以他最後成為了一個律師。因此,《圓屋》可以被認為是喬的成長故事。結論為本文的最後一個部分,總結本文的研究,並揭露出藉由厄德里奇的創傷書寫,讓奧布吉瓦族的人民得以為自己發聲並找出解決歷史創傷的管道。

In The Round House, Louise Erdrich arranges the rape of an Objiwe woman Geraldine Coutts as the beginning of the novel. In order to heal Geraldine's trauma, her son Joe starts to search for justice. However, he finds out that the Federal Law he trusts cannot deal with the problem of the rapist. At the same time, he realizes that Geraldine's rape is unusual. As a matter of fact, it is related to Objiwe historical trauma.

The thesis is divided into two chapters along with an introduction and a conclusion. The introduction simply introduces the literature review, the main argument, and the structure of the thesis. Chapter One involves three topics: animism, oral storytelling and historical trauma. First of all, interpreted through Alfred Irving Hallowell's animism theory and Walter Benjamin's storytelling theory, I will point out that Mooshum's myth not only reveals the importance of animism but also explains the sanctity of the Round House. Also, Mooshum's myth implies Objiwe people's oppressed history. With the help of Maria Yellow Horse Brave Heart's historical trauma theory, I will reveal that Geraldine' rape is related to Objiwe historical trauma. In this regard, Geraldine is a victim of Objiwe historical trauma. Chapter Two focuses on the complicated relationship between Geraldine's rape and other characters' traumatic experiences by means of Cathy Caruth's trauma theory and Walter Benjamin's memory theory. Joe's narration reveals that characters' traumatic experiences are not only individual but also collective. This is to say, Erdrich arranges Geraldine's rape in order to bring out other characters' traumas. As a result, I find out that Objiwe people suffer from different kinds of violence. Furthermore, based on Dori Laub's witness theory, I will show that Joe has double identity. He is both listener and survivor. Joe narrates not only Geraldine's rape but also his own trauma and guilty feeling of killing Linden. After realizing that killing is not the best choice to deal with any problem, he becomes a lawyer. Therefore, The Round House is considered a Bildungsroman. The conclusion combines all these discussions to conclude this research and to reveal that Erdrich's traumatic writing not only voices for Objiwe people but also offers them a way to cope with their historical trauma.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/97697
Rights: 同意授權瀏覽/列印電子全文服務,2018-08-27起公開。
Appears in Collections:外國語文學系所

Files in This Item:
File SizeFormat Existing users please Login
nchu-107-7101012014-1.pdf672.25 kBAdobe PDFThis file is only available in the university internal network    Request a copy
Show full item record
 

Google ScholarTM

Check


Items in DSpace are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.