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標題: 東沙島、小琉球、墾丁的皺紋陸寄居蟹 (Coenobita rugosus) 對貝殼之利用
Utilization of Shells of the Land Hermit Crabs (Coenobita rugosus) in Dongsha Island, Siaoliouciou and Kenting
作者: 李亦騏
Yi-Chi Lee
關鍵字: 皺紋陸寄居蟹;非洲大蝸牛;破碎抗力;東沙島;小琉球;後灣;殼利用;殼選擇;Coenobita rugosus;Achatina fulica;crushing resistance;Dongsha;Siaoliouciou;Houwan;shell utilization;shell selection
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陸寄居蟹 (Coenobita 屬) 在自然環境下最常使用蠑螺屬 (Turbo) 的殼, 然而東沙島的皺紋陸寄居蟹 (Coenobita rugosus Edwards, 1837) 卻較常使用外來種非洲大蝸牛 (Achatina fulica Bowdich, 1822) 的殼, 且體型顯得比台灣其他地區的還大。小琉球為一珊瑚礁島, 島上有許多類似蠑螺的螺殼可供陸寄居蟹使用。墾丁後灣屬於珊瑚礁地形, 在後灣有保育志工釋放各種殼型的殼, 包括食用的鳳螺屬 (Babylonia) 空殼等。本研究藉由比較東沙、小琉球和後灣的非洲大蝸牛殼破碎抗力、皺紋陸寄居蟹大螯長高比、大螯對身體的異速成長、性成熟體型、殼可用性、食性、抱卵量及皺紋陸寄居蟹的殼偏好, 來探討東沙島皺紋陸寄居蟹是否偏好使用非洲大蝸牛殼, 以及非洲大蝸牛殼是否影響其形態特徵與體型。殼破碎抗力檢測顯示, 相同大小的殼中, 東沙的蝸牛殼破碎抗力比小琉球和後灣大 (平均破碎抗力分別為 195 牛頓、179 牛頓、63 牛頓), 說明東沙島的非洲大蝸牛殼較硬, 推測較能抵抗捕食者的攻擊而較適合陸寄居蟹使用。三個地區的殼偏好實驗結果顯示, 在可選擇的情況下, 皺紋陸寄居蟹均偏好使用蠑螺殼 (偏好順序為蠑螺 > 鳳螺 > 非洲大蝸牛)。在大螯長高比和異速成長的分析中, 發現三個地區大螯和前盾長的成長均為等速成長, 顯示殼對皺紋陸寄居蟹成長的影響有限。然而東沙有大螯形狀偏向長形及異速成長偏向負異速的趨勢, 而小琉球則有大螯形狀偏向圓形及異速成長偏向正異速的趨勢。此外, 藉由異速成長推估獲得的性成熟體型, 與實際採集到的抱卵體型差異較大 (前盾長分別為 8.2 mm 和 6.7 mm), 無法以此推估性成熟體型。殼可用性中, 發現小琉球和後灣均缺乏足夠大的蠑螺殼, 可使皺紋陸寄居蟹成長到大體型 (東沙陸寄居蟹最大樣本為前盾長 17.4 mm, 迴歸分析顯示其需要殼長 75.0 mm 的蠑螺殼)。最後, 胃磨及胃含物的分析, 發現三個地區的皺紋陸寄居蟹胃含物中, 以植物碎屑最多 (分別佔 85.67%、98.86%、97.53%), 但是在胃含物中亦發現到動物碎屑。由於不同食物所提供的能量不同, 因此無法單純以食用海草做為解釋東沙島皺紋陸寄居蟹體型較大的原因。總結來說, 東沙島皺紋陸寄居蟹可能因當地資源缺乏蠑螺殼, 且當地非洲大蝸牛殼的破碎抗力較高、殼體較大, 而經常使用非洲大蝸牛殼, 並得以成長至較大的體型。皺紋陸寄居蟹所背負的殼型, 對螯的形狀、異速成長、性成熟體型等形態特徵的影響方面, 在各項分析的測量結果中, 發現均無顯著影響。

Land hermit crabs (genus Coenobita) usually occupy Turbo shells in the field, but C. rugosus in Dongsha Island use the shells of introduced Achatina fulica, and the body size seems larger than those from other areas in Taiwan. In Siaoliouciou, a coral reef island, there are abundant snail shells similar with Turbo which can be used by land hermit crabs. In Houwan of Kenting, a coral reef coast, conservation volunteers always released various types of shells, including the edible Babylonia areolata, for land hermit crabs. The purpose of this study was to explore whether C. rugosus preferred the shells of A. fulica and whether the shells influenced their morphology and body size, by comparing the crushing resistance of A. fulica shells, the shape of chela, the allometry between chela length and body length, the size of mature individuals, the availability of shells, the feeding habits, the size of clutch, and shell preference. The crushing resistance test showed the resistance values of A. fulica in Dongsha was higher than the values in Siaoliouciou and Kenting under similar size (mean = 195N, 179N, 63N, respectively). It implies the A. fulica shells in Dongsha are harder which may protect crabs from predators and become more suitable to be used by C. rugosus. The shell preference test showed the Turbo shells were preferred by C. rugosus if available (rank: Turbo > B. areolata > A. fulica). The length/width ratio of left chela and allometry of left chela length to body of individuals from three areas showed that all were isometric which suggest the shells occupied do not influence the crab morphology, although there is a negative allometry trend in Dongsha and a positive trend in Siaoliouciou. For the smallest size of mature females, the result estimated from allometry was different from the size sampled in the field (8.2 mm SL vs. 6.7 mm SL), which indicated this estimation may not be suitable. The analysis of shell availability showed that the shells of Turbo were smaller in Siaoliouciou and Kenting which may have limited the growth of C. rugosus (estimated from the largest crab in Dongsha, with 17.4 mm anterior shield length, which needs 75.0 mm of the shell length of Turbo). In stomach content analysis, although specimens from three areas had high percentage of plant debris (92.4%, 99.3%, 94.0%, respectively), some animal debris can be found. Because different food types having different energy, the larger size of C. rugosus in Dongsha can not be explained completely by ingesting seagrass. In conclusion, it is suggested that C. rugosus individuals in Dongsha occupy A. fulica shells is caused by the lack of Turbo shells, as well as the higher crushing resistance of A. fulica there. In addition, the larger A. fulica shells in Dongsha also allow crabs to grow to larger size. However, the shell types occupied do not influence the morphology of C. rugosus.
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