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標題: 穀食性鳥類對台中霧峰自然農法水稻田的地景利用與農損研究
The study of habitat utilization for granivorous birds and their impacts on the rice grain damage in a natural farming field at Wufeng District in Taichung City
作者: 陳柏安
Po-An Chen
關鍵字: 自然農法;鳥類危害;稻田管理;natural farming;bird damage;rice field management
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由於市場上健康食品的導向,無毒稻田耕種法受到重視,此類耕種模式提供鳥類安全的覓食環境,相對也造成農民的損失。本研究於台中市霧峰區的自然農法水稻田進行,藉由鳥類族群、群聚與稻穗危害率的調查,探討農作中鳥類分布與覓食如何受地景因素和稻作生產過程的影響。研究結果顯示稻作中使用稻田為覓食棲地並以稻米為食物的鳥類有樹麻雀 (Passer montanus)與斑文鳥 (Lonchura punctulata),而外來種白尾八哥 (Acridotheres javanicus)與家八哥 (A. tristis)雖在稻田中出現,但與水稻危害無關。一期作的麻雀和斑文鳥等穀食性鳥類平均數量與稻穗危害率分別為3.61 ± 0.23以及25.01% ± 0.99%,皆顯著地高於二期作的0.84 ± 0.21以及6.51% ± 1.02%;鳥類平均數量在一期作時期之乳熟期 (3.99 ± 0.35)與黃熟期 (4.79 ± 0.33)顯著地較繁殖生長期 (1.47 ± 0.31)多,且稻穗危害率於黃熟期有顯著增加。稻作區的地景設施與管理模式直接影響鳥類分布和稻米的損失率。一期作時期,穀食性鳥類偏好相鄰建築物與樹林樣區,其平均數量為4.19 ± 0.38較相鄰皆為水稻田樣區 (3.70 ± 0.25)以及相鄰灌溉渠道樣區 (2.93 ± 0.33)多。牠們也較常出現在具水泥田埂的樣區,其平均數量為2.77 ± 0.34顯著地較具土造田埂的平均數量 (1.68 ± 0.18)多;位於稻田邊緣鄰近建築物、樹林和灌溉渠道的樣區其稻穗危害率顯著地較水稻田中央樣區為高。而相鄰田埂具長草的稻叢,其稻米受損率低於相鄰水泥田埂以及短草的土造田埂者。因此,若能針對稻作危害的高風險時期與地景加強管控,並適當進行田埂的雜草管理,應可降低稻作的鳥類危害情形。

Food safety issue has been a great concern recently. Therefore, non-toxic farming practices have been valued in agricultural fields. These types of farming enrich the feeding habitats for birds. However, it also brings some damage cost for the growers. In order to study the impact of the natural farming practice on the feeding habitats of the birds, we monitored the population size of bird species, community structure and percentage of rice spikes damage at a natural farming rice field at Wufeng District in Taichung City. The results indicated that granivorous birds such as tree sparrow (Passer montanus) and scaly-breasted munia (Lonchura punctulata) used rice fields as foraging habitats and fed on the raw grain out of the rice plants. Although we found the exotic bird species such as white-vented myna (Acridotheres javanicus) and common myna (A. tristis) in the rice fields, there is no evidence to show they consume rice grain at the study site. We found more birds activities in the first rice cropping season than the second rice cropping season. The mean number of granivorous birds and percentage of rice spikes damage at the first rice cropping season are 3.61 ± 0.23 and 25.01% ± 0.99%, which were significantly higher than those of the second rice cropping season (0.84 ± 0.21 and 6.51% ± 1.02% respectively). The mean number of granivorous birds at milky stage and yellow-ripe stage were 3.99 ± 0.35 and 4.79 ± 0.33, which were significantly higher than the population mean of the reproductive growth stage (1.47 ± 0.31). In addition, the percentage of rice spikes damage had significantly increased during the yellow-ripe stage. We also found the different bird population distribution and percentage of rice grain lost by birds with various landscape types and levee weed management patterns in the rice plantation area. The granivorous birds preferred the feeding sites closed to buildings and trees with a mean population size of 4.19 ± 0.38, which is significantly higher than the mean population sizes of the sampling sites from the center of the rice fields (3.70 ± 0.25) and the sites closed to aqueducts (2.93 ± 0.33). The granivorous birds also preferred the habitat sites with cement levee than the sites with soil levee and having long weeds. We found birds consume more rice grain from the edge areas such as the sites closed to buildings, trees and aqueducts than the central area of the rice plantation. The soil levee with weed control also attracted more birds to consume rice grain than the soil levee without weed control. This study concludes that it is critical to have a proper landscape management such as levee weed control and bird prevention practices in the first rice cropping season to lower the risk of rice grain loss in the natural farming practice for rice plantation in Taichung.
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