Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/97745
標題: 外表很重要:碎斑硬象鼻蟲(Eupyrgops waltonianus)體色傳達的多種訊息
Appearance matters: multiple functional signals of body colors in Eupyrgops weevil
作者: 許皓
Hao Hsu
關鍵字: 競爭;碎斑硬象鼻蟲;Eupyrgops waltonianus;交配行為;交配系統;天擇;competition;Eupyrgops waltonianus;mating behavior;mating system;sexual selection
引用: Amundsen, T., E. Forsgren, and L. T. T. Hansen. 1997. On the function of female ornaments: male bluethroats prefer colourful females. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B. Biol. Sci. 264:1579-1586. Andersson, M. and Y. Iwasa. 1996. Sexual selection. Trends Ecol. Evol. 11:53-58. Andersson, M. and L. W. Simmons. 2006. Sexual selection and mate choice. Trends Ecol. Evol. 21:296-302. Andersson, M. B. 1994. Sexual selection, Princeton Univ. Press, Princeton, U.S.A. Arenas, L. M., D. Walter, and M. Stevens. 2015. Signal honesty and predation risk among a closely related group of aposematic species. Sci. Rep. 5:11021. Arnqvist, G. and T. Nilsson. 2000. The evolution of polyandry: multiple mating and female fitness in insects. Anim. Behav. 60:145-164. Blount, J. D., M. P. Speed, G. D. Ruxton, and P. A. Stephens. 2009. Warning displays may function as honest signals of toxicity. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B. Biol. Sci. 276:871-877. Brown, W. D., A. J. Chimenti, and J. R. Siebert. 2007. The payoff of fighting in house crickets: motivational asymmetry increases male aggression and mating success. Ethology 113:457-465. Burley, N. and N. Moran. 1979. The significance of age and reproductive experience in the mate preferences of feral pigeons, Columba livia. Anim. Behav. 27:686-698. Casalini, M., M. Agbali, M. Reichard, M. Konečná, A. Bryjová, and C. Smith. 2009. Male dominance, female mate choice, and intersexual conflict in the rose bitterling (Rhodeus ocellatus). Evolution 63:366-376. Cortesi, F. and K. L. Cheney. 2010. Conspicuousness is correlated with toxicity in marine opisthobranchs. J. Evol. Biol. 23:1509-1518. Crothers, L. R. and M. E. Cummings. 2013. Warning signal brightness variation: sexual selection may work under the radar of natural selection in populations of a polytypic poison frog. Am. Nat. 181:E116-E124. Doutrelant, C., A. Grégoire, N. Grnac, D. Gomez, M. M. Lambrechts, and P. Perret. 2008. Female coloration indicates female reproductive capacity in blue tits. J. Evol. Biol. 21:226-233. Edvardsson, M. and G. Arnqvist. 2005. The Effects of Copulatory Courtship on Differential Allocation in the Red Flour Beetle Tribolium castaneum. J. Insect Behav. 18:313-322. Eisner, T., R. Alsop, and G. Ettershank. 1964. Adhesiveness of spider silk. Science 146:1058-1061. Endler, J. A. 1980. Natural selection on color patterns in Poecilia reticulata. Evolution 34:76-91. Finkbeiner, S. D., A. D. Briscoe, and R. D. Reed. 2014. Warning signals are seductive: relative contributions of color and pattern to predator avoidance and mate attraction in Heliconius butterflies. Evolution 68:3410-3420. Gagnon, M. C. and J. Turgeon. 2011. Sexual conflict in Gerris gillettei (Insecta: Hemiptera): intraspecific intersexual correlated morphology and experimental assessment of behaviour and fitness. J. Evol. Biol. 24:1505-1516. Gibbons, M. M. and T. K. McCarthy. 1986. The reproductive output of frogs Rana temporaria (L.) with particular reference to body size and age. J. Zool. 209:579-593. Gladbach, A., D. J. Gladbach, B. Kempenaers, and P. Quillfeldt. 2010. Female-specific colouration, carotenoids and reproductive investment in a dichromatic species, the upland goose Chloephaga picta leucoptera. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 64:1779-1789. Griggio, M., V. Zanollo, and H. Hoi. 2009. UV plumage color is an honest signal of quality in male budgerigars. Ecol. Res. 25:77-82. Jaffe, K., B. Mirás, and A. Cabrera. 2007. Mate selection in the moth Neoleucinodes elegantalis: evidence for a supernormal chemical stimulus in sexual attraction. Anim. Behav. 73:727-734. Jian, G. M. and W. S. Huang. 2017. Life history of Pachyrhynchus sonani on Orchid and Green Islands. Pp. 293–302. Department of Life Science. Tunghai University, Taichung, Taiwan, Class-2017 Senior Research Theses (in Chinese). Jiggins, C. D., R. E. Naisbit, R. L. Coe, and J. Mallet. 2001. Reproductive isolation caused by colour pattern mimicry. Nature 411:302. Jones, T. M. and M. A. Elgar. 2004. The role of male age, sperm age and mating history on fecundity and fertilization success in the hide beetle. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B. Biol. Sci. 271:1311. Kemp, D. J. 2007. Female butterflies prefer males bearing bright iridescent ornamentation. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B. Biol. Sci. 274:1043-1047. Kendall-Bar, J. M. and V. K. Iyengar. 2017. Sexual selection by the seashore: the roles of body size and weaponry in mate choice and competition in the maritime earwig (Anisolabis maritima). Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 71:8. Klein, A. L., M. C. Trillo, F. G. Costa, and M. J. Albo. 2013. Nuptial gift size, mating duration and remating success in a Neotropical spider. Ethol. Ecol. Evol. 26:29-39. Koivula, M., E. Koskela, T. Mappes, and T. A. Oksanen. 2003. Cost of reproduction in the wild: manipulation of reproductive effort in the bank vole. Ecology 84:398-405. Kraak, S. B. and T. C. Bakker. 1998. Mutual mate choice in sticklebacks: attractive males choose big females, which lay big eggs. Anim. Behav. 56:859-866. Lauer, M. J. 1996. Effect of sperm depletion and starvation on female mating behavior in the water strider, Aquarius remigis. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 38:89-96. Lim, M. L. and D. Li. 2007. Effects of age and feeding history on structure-based UV ornaments of a jumping spider (Araneae: Salticidae). Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B. Biol. Sci. 274:569-575. Lin, T. S., S. C. Zhang, C. P. Liao, E. A. Hebets, and I. M. Tso. 2015. A dual function of white coloration in a nocturnal spider Dolomedes raptor (Araneae: Pisauridae). Anim. Behav. 108:25-32. Maan, M. E. and M. E. Cummings. 2008. Female preferences for aposematic signal components in a polymorphic poison frog. Evolution 62:2334-2345. Maan, M. E. and M. E. Cummings. 2009. Sexual dimorphism and directional sexual selection on aposematic signals in a poison frog. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 106:19072-190727. McElligott, A. G., M. P. Gammell, H. C. Harty, D. R. Paini, D. T. Murphy, J. T. Walsh, and T. J. Hayden. 2001. Sexual size dimorphism in fallow deer (Dama dama): do larger, heavier males gain greater mating success? Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 49:266-272. Moore, P. J. and A. J. Moore. 2001. Reproductive aging and mating: the ticking of the biological clock in female cockroaches. Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U. S. A. 98:9171-9176. Nokelainen, O., R. H. Hegna, J. H. Reudler, C. Lindstedt, and J. Mappes. 2012. Trade-off between warning signal efficacy and mating success in the wood tiger moth. Proc. R. Soc. Lond. B. Biol. Sci. 279:257-265. Ospina-L, A. M., J. A. Rios-Soto, and F. Vargas-Salinas. 2017. Size, endurance, or parental care performance? male–male competition, female choice, and non-random mating pattern in the glassfrog Centrolene savagei. Copeia 105:575-583. Pérez‐Staples, D., M. G. Martínez‐Hernández, and M. Aluja. 2010. Male age and experience increases mating success but not female fitness in the Mexican fruit fly. Ethology 116:778-786. Peters, A., K. Delhey, W. Goymann, and B. Kempenaers. 2006. Age-dependent association between testosterone and crown UV coloration in male blue tits (Parus caeruleus). Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 59:666-673. Rosvall, K. A. 2011. Intrasexual competition in females: evidence for sexual selection? Behav. Ecol. 22:1131-1140. Ryan, M. J. 1997. Sexual selection and mate choice. Pp. 179-202 in J. R. Krebs, and N. B. Davies, eds. Behavioural ecology, an evolutionary approach. 4th ed. Blackwell Science, Oxford, U.K. Savard, J. F., J. Keagy, and G. Borgia. 2011. Blue, not UV, plumage color is important in satin bowerbird Ptilonorhynchus violaceus display. J. Avian Biol. 42:80-84. Shuker, D. M., G. A. Ballantyne, and N. Wedell. 2006. Variation in the cost to females of the sexual conflict over mating in the seed bug, Lygaeus equestris. Anim. Behav. 72:313-321. Siddiqi, A., T. W. Cronin, E. R. Loew, M. Vorobyev, and K. Summers. 2004. Interspecific and intraspecific views of color signals in the strawberry poison frog Dendrobates pumilio. J. Exp. Biol. 207:2471-2485. Siefferman, L., G. E. Hill, and F. S. Dobson. 2005. Ornamental plumage coloration and condition are dependent on age in eastern bluebirds Sialia sialis. J. Avian Biol. 36:428-435. Sih, A., M. Lauer, and J. J. Krupa. 2002. Path analysis and the relative importance of male–female conflict, female choice and male–male competition in water striders. Anim. Behav. 63:1079-1089. Speed, M. P. and G. D. Ruxton. 2007. How bright and how nasty: explaining diversity in warning signal strength. Evolution 61:623-635. Sullivan-Beckers, L. and R. B. Cocroft. 2010. The importance of female choice, male-male competition, and signal transmission as causes of selection on male mating signals. Evolution 64:3158-3171. Suzuki, S., M. Nagano, and S. T. Trumbo. 2005. Intrasexual competition and mating behavior in Ptomascopus morio (Coleoptera: Silphidae Nicrophorinae). J. Insect Behav. 18:233-242. Tseng, H. Y., C. P. Lin, J. Y. Hsu, D. A. Pike, and W. S. Huang. 2014. The functional significance of aposematic signals: geographic variation in the responses of widespread lizard predators to colourful invertebrate prey. PLoS One 9:e91777. Wang, L. Y., W. S. Huang, H. C. Tang, L. C. Huang, and C. P. Lin. 2018. Too hard to swallow: a secret secondary defence of an aposematic insect. J. Exp. Biol. 42:796-813. Wey, T. W., A. T. Chang, S. Fogarty, and A. Sih. 2014. Personalities and presence of hyperaggressive males influence male mating exclusivity and effective mating in stream water striders. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 69:27-37. Willink, B., F. Bolaños, and H. Pröhl. 2014. Conspicuous displays in cryptic males of a polytypic poison-dart frog. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 68:249-261. Xu, J. and Q. Wang. 2009. Male moths undertake both pre- and in-copulation mate choice based on female age and weight. Behav. Ecol. Sociobiol. 63:801-808. Zeng, J., N. Xiang, L. Jiang, G. Jones, Y. Zheng, B. Liu, and S. Zhang. 2011. Moth wing scales slightly increase the absorbance of bat echolocation calls. PLoS One 6:e27190.
摘要: 
野生物種外表所呈現的視覺訊號往往會被天擇與性擇所影響而形成極為鮮豔或黯淡的顏色。對於具有警戒色的物種而言,鮮豔的個體展示不好吃的訊息以減少被捕食的機率,甚至能吸引異性交配以增加自己的生殖成功率。綠島的碎斑硬象鼻蟲(Eupyrgops waltonianus)具有金屬光澤的斑點已被證實為一種警戒訊號且有效地降低被捕食的機率;然而還是有很多黯淡的個體生存於野外,我們並不了解這些沒有斑點個體在性擇是否具有功用。同時為了瞭解E. waltonianus的體型是否影響其交配成功率,我們比較有交配與未交配個體的體重、前背板長、翅鞘長與斑點面積的比例。另外,利用操作實驗(保留或移除斑點)檢測顏色是否會影響交配的選擇與行為。結果顯示體重與斑點為影響雌性生殖能力的兩個重要指標,雄蟲偏好於與較重與較鮮艷的雌蟲交配,但是雌蟲在選擇雄性上並未展示任何偏好。在交配系統中,E. waltonianus 為雄性較有優勢並且在種內競爭中也較強。我們的實驗顯示鮮豔的斑點在雌性象鼻蟲身上具有多重功能性,能同時有效地提供警戒與吸引異性的訊號給不同的接收者,而且在自然界中雄蟲與雌蟲有著不同的選汰壓力。

Visual signals in many animals are often shaped by natural and sexual selection, and the coloration on some species might be extremely conspicuous or dull in the wild. For aposematic species, conspicuous individuals may possess the advantages from advertising unprofitability to decrease predation, or even attracting mates to increase reproductive success. On Green Island, the metallic blue spots weevil Eupyrgops waltonianus has been proved to be of the aposematic signals which effectively reduce the predation rate. However, there are still some weevils of this species without conspicuous coloration in the field. Whether dull individuals encounter cost or benefit and the function of coloration on sexual selection are still unknown. In order to realize whether appearance affects mating success in E. waltonianus, we compared different traits (e.g. body weight, pronotum length, elytra length and ratio of spot area) between mating and non-mating individuals in the field. Manipulated experiments (spot-remained and post-removed) were used to test whether coloration affects mating choice and behavior in the lab. The results showed that body mass and coloration are two important indicators to evaluate the reproductive quality of females. Males preferred to mate with more conspicuous and heavier females. However, females did not display any mate preference. The mating system of E. waltonianus is a male dominant system, and intra-sexual competition is stronger in males. Our study demonstrated that conspicuous coloration on female weevils exhibits multiple functions, which can be used as aposematic and attractive signals for different receivers, and males and females face different selection pressure in natural environment.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/97745
Rights: 同意授權瀏覽/列印電子全文服務,2021-08-16起公開。
Appears in Collections:生命科學院碩士在職專班

Files in This Item:
File SizeFormat Existing users please Login
nchu-107-7104052108-1.pdf1.11 MBAdobe PDFThis file is only available in the university internal network    Request a copy
Show full item record
 

Google ScholarTM

Check


Items in DSpace are protected by copyright, with all rights reserved, unless otherwise indicated.