Please use this identifier to cite or link to this item: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/97754
標題: 植物菌質體SAP11蛋白改變植物開花時間與生長階段轉換之分子機制研究
The molecular mechanism study of SAP11-mediated alteration of flowering time and phase transition caused by phytoplasma infection
作者: 張書恆
Shu-Heng Chang
關鍵字: 植物菌質體;SAP11致病性蛋白;生長階段轉換;開花;SPL轉錄因子;Phytoplasma;SAP11;Phase transition;flowering;SPL
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摘要: 
植物菌質體為一種由昆蟲傳播且無法人工培養的植物病原菌,其分泌的致病性蛋白可以引起病害於重要的經濟作物。當植物受到植物菌質體的感染時會出現許多不同的病徵,其中包含植物開花時間的延遲。本實驗發現Ca. P. asteris Aster Yellow Witches' Broom (AYWB) 植物菌質體的SAP11AYWB致病性蛋白,與其在Peanut Witches' Broom (PnWB) 植物菌質體的同源蛋白SAP11PnWB會導致擬南芥表現不同的外表型病徵。大量表現SAP11AYWB致病性蛋白的擬南芥會有延遲開花時間的病徵,且改變調控開花與生長階段轉換的基因表現量,而大量表現SAP11PnWB致病性蛋白的擬南芥則沒有出現類似的症狀。在植物的生長發育過程中,開花代表著植物從營養生長時期轉換到生殖時期,其中SQUAMOSA PROMOTER BINDING PROTEIN LIKE (SPL) 轉錄因子在調控植物生長階段轉換中扮演著重要角色。由生物資訊分析發現,在SPL基因的上游具有第二型TEOSINTE BRANCHED1, CYCLOIEDA, PROLIFERATION CELL FACTOR1 (TCP) 轉錄因子所辨識的保留性序列,顯示SPL基因的表現可能受到第二型TCP轉錄因子的調控。已知SAP11AYWB致病性蛋白可以與第二型TCP轉錄因子結合,並使其不穩定而其被降解。因此我們推論,SAP11AYWB藉由減少植物體內第二型TCP轉錄因子,並且降低其調控的SPL3基因的表現量,進而引起的開花時間與生長階段轉換的改變。

Phytoplasmas are insect transmitted and uncultivable plant pathogens that secrete effectors and cause diseases in economically important plants. Plants infected with phytoplasma exhibit several different disease symptoms including delayed flowering time. Interestingly, Ca. P. asteris Aster Yellow Witches' Broom (AYWB) phytoplasma effector SAP11AYWB and its homolog SAP11PnWB, which are found in Peanut Witches' Broom (PnWB) phytoplasma cause different phenotypes when expressed in Arabidopsis. The flowering time of Arabidopsis transgenic plants that express SAP11AYWB were delayed, but not in transgenic plants that express SAP11PnWB. This morphological change correlated to the altered expression level of genes involved in the plant phase transition and flowering time. In plants, flowering is a major morphological transition from vegetative growth phase to reproductive phase, and SQUAMOSA PROMOTER BINDING PROTEIN LIKE (SPL) transcription factors play a key role in the regulation of the phase transition. Bioinformatics analysis showed that the upstream of SPL genes contain class II TEOSINTE BRANCHED1, CYCLOIEDA, PROLIFERATION CELL FACTOR1 (TCP) transcription factor binding motif, suggesting that the expression of SPL genes are regulated by class II TCP transcription factors. Based on the fact that SAP11AYWB binds and destabilizes class II TCP transcription factors, we hypothesized that SAP11AYWB-mediated changes in flowering time and phase transition were caused by the decreased expression level of SPL3 through destabilizing TCPs.
URI: http://hdl.handle.net/11455/97754
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