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Study of ganoderic acid and volatiles biosynthesis during heat stress-induced apoptosis
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Huang J, Cardoza YJ and Schmelz EA et al. (2003) Differential volatile emissions and salicylic acid levels from tobacco plants in response to different strains of Pseudomonas syringae. Planta 217:767–775. 52. 陳季翎 (2016) 細胞凋亡及生長因子對靈芝揮發性代謝物生成之影響. 中國醫藥大學 藥用化妝品學系碩士論文. 53. 黃俊郃 (2015) 熱刺激誘導靈芝細胞凋亡並促進靈芝酸的生合成. 中國醫藥大學 中國藥學暨中藥資源學系碩士論文.||摘要:||
靈芝是一種已經長時間在亞洲國家所使用珍貴中藥材，其主要藥物成分靈芝酸 (ganoderic acids) 是屬於三萜類化合物，目前被證實具有抗癌、抗發炎和保肝等功效。在植物中發現真菌細胞壁可誘導植物細胞凋亡及二次代謝物產生。然而，真菌中調控細胞凋亡與二次代謝物生合成的相關研究甚少。本研究想了解高溫誘導靈芝細胞凋亡及靈芝酸生合成的可能調控機轉，探討細胞膜流動、鈣離子訊息傳遞所扮演的角色。我們的研究成果證實利用鈣離子螢光染劑 (Fluo-3AM) 證實在高溫下靈芝細胞內鈣離子濃度上升，而50 mM EGTA (ethylene glycol-bis (β-aminoethyl ether) -N,N,N',N'-tetraacetic acid)前處理則可降低高溫所造成細胞內鈣離子濃度的上升；利用HPLC進行代謝物分析，證實50 mM EGTA可抑制高溫所誘導的靈芝酸產生，證明細胞外鈣離子對於熱刺激下靈芝酸生合成扮演重要角色，實驗進一步利用抑制胞器內鈣離子釋放的藥劑 (LiCl、neomycine)，證實胞器內鈣離子的釋放不在此過程扮演重要角色。另外利用鈣離子下游訊息傳遞蛋白calmodulin、calcinuerin抑制藥劑 (cyclosporine A、chloropomazine)，證實此兩個鈣離子下游訊息傳遞蛋白不扮演重要角色。本論文另一部分研究關於揮發物質，在真菌上，細胞凋亡的產生是否與揮發性二次代謝物之生合成有關，目前則是全然未知，而先前首度證實利用aspirin處理靈芝會誘導靈芝細胞凋亡及揮發性二次代謝物的產生，而熱刺激造成的細胞凋亡是否會調控不同揮發性物質是一個重要研究。實驗利用氣相層析儀觀察熱刺激誘導靈芝細胞凋亡下，發現以高溫處理靈芝所誘導的揮發性二次代謝物與aspirin處理所誘導的不盡相同，證明不同細胞凋亡方式可以誘導不同的揮發性二次代謝物產生。
Ganoderma lucidum (G. lucidum ) is a traditional Chinese medicine that has been used in Asia for a long time. Its major pharmaceutical ingredient, ganoderic acids (GA), belongs to triterpenoid and it's pharmalogical activities such as anti-cancer, anti-inflammation and liver protection has been proved. In plants, several studies indicated that fungal cell walls induced apoptosis and secondary metabolite production. However, it remains unknown for regulation of apoptosis and the secondary metabolites biosynthesis. This study investigates the regulation of heat-induced apoptosis and GAs biosynthesis by cell membrane fluidity and calcium signaling. Our results showed that intracellular calcium was increased after heat stress by using calcium fluorescent dye (Fluo-3AM). 50 mM EGTA pretreatment reduce intracellular calcium concentration caused by heat treatment. By HPLC analysis, our results showed that 50 mM EGTA reduced heat-sress induced GAs production. These results indicated that extracellular calcium ions is involved in the regulation of GAs biosynthesis under heat stress. Our data also showed that calcium signaling proteins, calmoduiln and calcinurein, were not involved in heat-stress induced GAs biosynthesis by using inhibitor of calmoduiln and calcinurein, cyclosporine A and chloropomazine, respectively. In addition, we proved that calcium released from organelles was not involved in heat-stress induced GAs biosynthesis. Another part of this thesis investigate the volatile compounds in G. lucidum. Whether apoptosis regulates volatile compounds biosynthesis is unknown. Previous study indicated that aspirin induced apoptosis and volatiles production in G. lucidum. Our results showed that heat stress induced different profile of volatiles production as compared with aspirin treatment. These results indicate apoptosis regulates volatile biosynthesis in fungi.
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